Cavendish i loko

Eratosthenes (Quantik #12, 2019)

ʻO Clapham kahi moku o Lādana, a ma ka hopena o ke kenekulia 18 i manaʻo ʻia he kauhale. ʻOi aku ma mua o ʻelua haneli mau makahiki i hala aku nei, aia kahi hale kūʻokoʻa ʻole, i luku ʻia i kēia manawa, kahi a nā hoalauna i ʻōlelo ai i kā lākou mau keiki: "ʻO ka hale kēia i kaupaona ʻia ka honua."

Ua makemake nui nā kānaka ʻepekema i ka nui o ka Honua. ʻAʻole paʻakikī loa ka manaʻo ʻana i ka radius o ka Honua (e manaʻo ʻia he kinipōpō): Ua hana ʻo Eratosthenes i kēia i ke kenekulia 3 BC. I ka lā o ka solstice kauwela, i ka manawa i ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Siena (ʻo Aswan i kēia manawa) ua hāʻule nā ​​​​kukui o ka Lā i ka honua, ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Alexandria, pololei ma ka ʻākau o Siena, ʻaʻole i kū pololei ko lākou kuhikuhi. he aka ka la. Ma hope o ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ke kihi o ka hāʻule ʻana o nā kukuna ma Alexandria - a hiki ke hana ʻia kēia ma ka ʻike ʻana i ka ratio o ka lōʻihi o ke aka mai ka lā a hiki i ko lākou kiʻekiʻe - a ʻike i ka mamao ma waena o Alexandria a me Syene, Eratosthenes, ua hoʻoponopono i kahi pilikia geometric maʻalahi. , ike i ka radius o ka Honua (Fig. 1). Ma hope mai, ua ana pono nā mea ʻē aʻe: R  ≈ 6370 km.

R

Hoʻohilahila nui ʻia nā wahine iā ia a kamaʻilio pū ʻo ia me nā kahu wahine i loko o ka hale me ke kōkua ʻana o nā memo, a ua ʻōlelo ʻia ua noi ʻo ia e hoʻopili i kahi alapiʻi hou i kona hale i ʻole ke komo a haʻalele ʻana ʻaʻole ia e paʻi me ka poʻe. kahu hale.

kahi o ka m 1 a me  ka m 2  ka nui o na kino mua a me ka lua, o R  ka mamao mawaena o ko laua mau kikowaena, a  o G kekahi helu i kapaia ka umekaumaha mau .

 

Nānā iā Lākana i ke kenekulia 18 (Quantik No. 12, 2019)

He aha ka poʻe i aʻo mai ka ʻike Cavendish? ʻO ka mea mua, ua ʻike maopopo ʻia aia ma ka hohonu o ka Honua i hoʻopaʻa ʻia nā mea kaumaha: ma hope o nā mea a pau, ʻoi aku ka haʻahaʻa o ka nui o nā papa honua o kā mākou honua ma mua o 5.5 g/ cm3 . A ua kuikahi loa keia me na manao hou e pili ana i ke kumu o ka Honua, ka nui o ka hao a me ka nickel. ʻO ka lua, ʻo ka ʻike ʻana i ka mānoanoa a me ka leo o ka Honua (e hoʻomanaʻo i ka helu ʻana o ka leo o kahi pōpō o ka  radius R

ʻehā

Ua loaʻa iā mCavendish kahi waiwai nui a i kekahi manawa ua manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ke kanaka waiwai loa ma Lākana. Ua kapa ʻia ʻo Biot physicist Farani "ʻo ka mea waiwai loa ma waena o nā ʻepekema a ʻoi loa ka naʻauao ma waena o ka poʻe waiwai." Akā naʻe, ua ʻaʻahu ʻia ʻo Cavendish me ke ʻano haʻahaʻa a me ke ʻano kahiko, a kokoke i nā keʻena a pau o kona hale ua paʻa i nā puke a me nā mea hana ʻepekema (akā hoʻokahi nāwaliwali: ua ʻae ʻo ia iā ia iho i nā lako nani). ʻAʻole ʻo ia i makemake e komo i kāna mau hana kālā, a i ka manawa a ka mea panakō i ʻōlelo ai e hoʻolilo ʻo ia i kekahi ʻoihana, ua pane ʻo Cavendish: "E hana ʻoe i kāu mea e makemake ai, mai hoʻopilikia mai iaʻu i kēia, i ʻole e loaʻa iaʻu kahi panakō hou. " Akā naʻe, ʻaʻole i emi kona waiwai, a ua kāhāhā ka poʻe o ka wā: ke huki maoli nei anei ʻo ia i ke kālā mai kahi pahu ʻole? I ka noi ʻana o kekahi hoa hana iā ia i kōkua iki. Ua kākau ʻo Cavendish iā ia i kahi leka no ʻumi kaukani paona - he helu hōkū i kēlā mau lā! ʻAʻole paha ʻo ia ka lokomaikaʻi, akā ʻo ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ke ʻano o ka "kōkua liʻiliʻi".

 

Buke "Nā Ho'āʻo no ka Hoʻoholo ʻana i ka Density o ka Honua" (Quantik #12, 2019)

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ʻAʻole wale ʻo Cavendish i moeʻuhane i ka kaulana - ʻaʻole ʻo ia i ʻike i kahi hoʻolaha, ʻaʻole i hoʻopuka i nā puke a aneane ʻaʻole kākau i nā ʻatikala. ʻAʻole ʻo ia i hōʻike i ka nui o kāna mau palapala a hiki i kona mau hoa hana, a ua ʻike ʻia lākou ma hope o nā makahiki he nui, i ka wā i loiloi ʻia ai, hōʻiliʻili ʻia a paʻi ʻia e kekahi physicist nui ʻo James Maxwell. A ua luku loa ʻia kekahi o nā manuscripts e ka mea kākau, a hiki iā mākou ke koho wale i kā lākou ʻike.

Ua kākau ka mea kākau moʻolelo o Cavendish nona:

"Quantik" №12, 2019

Halepule Hemolele a pau ma Derby (Quantik #12, 2019)

No ke aha e noho mau ai ka pilikia? No ka mea, i ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ia mau pūʻali liʻiliʻi, paʻakikī loa ka hoʻopau ʻana i ke keakea ʻole. Ua hana maikaʻi ʻo Cavendish. Ua hoʻokomo ʻia kāna hoʻokomo ʻana i loko o kahi pahu lāʻau i ʻole e hoʻopilikia ʻia e ka ea a me nā loli wela. Ua nānā ka mea nānā i ka mea e hana nei ma o ke kelepona ma nā puka o nā paia o ka pahu. Me ke kōkua o kahi mīkini kūikawā, ua lawe ʻia nā pōpō nui i nā mea liʻiliʻi mai kekahi ʻaoʻao a i ʻole kekahi, i mea e loaʻa ai ka hopena i makemake ʻia no ka hihia i ka wā i hoʻohuli iki ʻia ai ka hale a i ʻole ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana e pili ana i ka pae. Ua hana hou ʻia ka hoʻokolohua i nā manawa he nui. ʻO kahi huaʻōlelo, ua makemake ʻia ka noʻonoʻo kūʻokoʻa, a ʻaʻole no ka mea ʻole i manaʻo ʻia ka ʻike o Cavendish i mea hoʻohālike.

, ʻike pū mākou i ka nui o ka Honua. A i ke kenekulia 19, i ka wā i loaʻa ai ka moʻolelo o ke kānāwai o ka umekaumaha honua i kona ʻano hou,  ua helu pū ʻia ka G mau . I kēia manawa hiki iā mākou ke helu i ka ikaika o ka huki ʻana ma waena o nā mea ʻelua.

 

Akā naʻe, ʻo ka mea kaulana loa o Cavendish ʻo ke ana ʻana o ka nui o ka Honua ma 1797-1798. Pono kēia e kamaʻilio e pili ana i nā kikoʻī.

ʻO Cavendish apparatus no ka hana ʻana i ka hydrogen ("Quantik" No. 12, 2019)

 

ʻAʻohe mamo a Henry Cavendish; ʻO nā Cavendish kaulana ʻē aʻe (me William, ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu i ka Cavendish Laboratory, kahi i hana ai ma kahi o kanakolu Nobel laureates ma hope i ka 20th century) kona mau ʻohana mamao.

ʻO ke kumu o ka hoʻokomo ʻana iā Cavendish he kaulike torsion. Ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia kahi ʻauamo me ʻelua mau pōpō alakaʻi like ʻole ma ke kaula hao lōʻihi - ma kahi o 730 grams kēlā me kēia. He pōpō kaumaha (ma kahi o 150 kg), i hana ʻia me ke kēpau, i lawe ʻia i kēlā me kēia o lākou i ke kiʻekiʻe like me ia. A laila huli ka rocker ma kahi kihi liʻiliʻi! Hoʻoholo ʻia kēia kihi, ma kekahi ʻaoʻao, e ka ikaika o ka huki ʻana ma waena o nā pōpō, a ma kekahi ʻaoʻao, e ka elasticity o ke kaula. Ma muli o ke ana ʻana o ka elasticity o ke kaula (no kēia, ua wehe ʻia nā pōpō nui a ua haʻalulu ka rocker a puni ke kaula), ua maʻalahi hoʻi ka helu ʻana i ka ikaika o ka huki ʻana ma waena o nā pōpō.

ʻO Henry Cavendish (Quantik #12, 2019)

ʻO ka mea ʻoiaʻiʻo, ua hilahila ʻo Cavendish a pale aku i nā kānaka. Me ka honua o waho, ua hoʻāʻo ʻo ia e kamaʻilio ma o kāna mea kōkua ʻo Charles Blagden a ʻaʻole ʻo ia i hana i nā hoaaloha pili a ʻohana paha. Ke hoʻolauna ʻia ʻo ia i kekahi, hopohopo loa ʻo ia. ʻOiai i nā kamaʻilio ʻana me nā hoa kahiko, me nā ʻōlelo mālama ʻole, ua pani ʻo ia iā ia iho a hoʻāʻo e hoʻomaha. I kekahi manawa, hele ʻo ia ma kahi ʻāpana liʻiliʻi a me ka noʻonoʻo hohonu ʻana, ua hālāwai ʻo ia me kahi kāne aloha i huli iā ia me kekahi nīnau. Ua makaʻu loa ʻo Cavendish a mai ia manawa mai hele wale ʻo ia a puni ka hale. ʻO ke ʻano kamaʻilio pili honua wale nō āna i ʻike ai he ahiahi ma ka hui Royal Society: ma laila ʻo ia i mahalo nui ʻia a ʻike i kona kuleana i nā mea ʻē aʻe.

ʻAe, i loko o kēia hale i hoʻoholo mua ai ka physicist a me ka chemist Pelekane ʻo Henry Cavendish i ka nui a me ka nui o ka Honua. ʻO kēia kāna hana kaulana loa, ʻaʻole naʻe ʻo ia wale nō.

Ka uhi puke no The Man Who 'Weighed' the Earth' (Quantik #12, 2019)

R

Hale Cavendish (Quantik #12, 2019)

 

Laiki.  1. Ka ho'oholo 'ana i ka radius o ka Honua ("Quantik" No. 12, 2019)

Akā ʻaʻole maʻalahi loa. ʻAʻole hoʻohana ʻo Cavendish i nā huaʻōlelo kūpono a me ka notation a mākou e hoʻohana nei i kēia manawa. Ua hoʻokumu ʻo Cavendish i kāna hana ʻaʻole e like me ke "ana ʻana i ka nui o ka Honua", akā ʻo ke "ana ʻana i ka nui o ka honua". Ma ke ala, ʻo kāna mau hualoaʻa, ua pololei loa ia: ʻo ka awelika ka nui o ka honua ma kahi o 5.48 mau manawa o ka wai (ʻo ke kiʻi hou ma kahi o 5.51 g/cm3 ) , a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ke ana ʻana ma hope o hoʻokahi haneli mau makahiki. . ʻOiai i kēia manawa, pono kēia i nā hoʻonohonoho like ʻole, a ʻo ka pololei kiʻekiʻe ka pilikia.

ʻAno hoʻonohonoho hoʻokolohua.  Kiʻi ʻia e Cavendish, 1798 (Quantik No. 12, 2019)

Marina Molchanova

Ka uhi o ka puke "The Scientific Papers of the Honorable Henry Cavendish" (Quantik #12, 2019)

 

ʻO ka ʻike nui o Cavendish

ʻOiaʻiʻo, ua nalo ka makaʻu ʻole o Cavendish ma kāna pākaukau a i loko o ka hale hana. Maanei ua hoʻonoho ʻo ia iā ia iho i nā hana wiwo ʻole a nui - a hoʻoponopono maikaʻi iā lākou.

 

Pīhoihoi loa ʻo Cavendish i ka ʻike ʻana i kekahi lā e kākau lākou e pili ana iā ia i loko o kahi puke puke keiki a e hoʻokomo ʻia kahi wehewehe o kona ʻike i loko o nā puke aʻo physics. Akā, pēlā nō.

ʻO G

ʻO ka ʻaoʻao o waho o ke ola o Cavendish he ʻilihune loa i nā hanana. Hānau ʻia ma Nice, aʻo ʻia ma Cambridge, i kekahi manawa noho ma Lākana, i kekahi manawa ma hope. ʻAʻohe mea hoʻohana, ʻaʻohe scandals, ʻaʻohe mea hoʻopā a weliweli paha. A ʻo kēia ma muli o nā hiʻohiʻona ʻokoʻa o kona ʻano - ʻaʻole maʻamau a hiki i ka honua ʻepekema, maʻa i nā eccentrics a me nā kumu kumu, nānā i kēia kanaka me ka pīhoihoi.

πF
_

Laiki.  2. Papahana o ka mea hana no ka hoʻokolohua Cavendish ("Quantik" No. 12, 2019)

Akā, pehea e ʻike ai i ka nui o ka honua? No ka manawa lōʻihi, ua like ʻole kēia hana. ʻO ka manawa kūpono e hoʻokokoke aku ai i ka wā i ʻike ai ʻo Newton i ke kānāwai o ka umekaumaha ākea: ma hope o nā mea a pau, ʻaʻole wale ka Honua a me nā kino lani e huki i nā mea like ʻole iā lākou iho, akā ma ke ʻano maʻamau nā mea āpau o ka honua i huki kekahi i kekahi. Ua helu ʻia ka ikaika o ka umekaumaha ma waena o lākou (ma ka notation hou) e like me

 

ʻekahi

Ua ʻike mākou me ka ikaika  F e huki ʻia ke kino o kekahi nuipa m 1 i ka Honua. ʻIke mākou i ka mamao ma waena o ko lākou mau kikowaena - ʻo ia ka radius o ka Honua  R . Akā, i ka wā o Newton, ʻaʻole i ʻike ʻia ka  G mau a me ka nui o ka Honua  m 2 , ʻaʻohe ala e loaʻa ai. I kēia manawa, inā hiki iā mākou ke ana i ka ikaika o ka huki ʻana ma waena o ʻelua mau mea i ʻike ʻia (a hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka ikaika o ka huki ʻana i ka Honua), he mea ʻokoʻa loa ia ... ma waena o nā mea o ka nui kūpono i hiki i ke kanaka ke hoʻolālā e nāwaliwali loa.

,

2
=

He kumu hoʻohālike hou o ka mea Cavendish ("Quantik" No. 12, 2019)

ʻO Isaac Newton (Quantik #12, 2019)

James Maxwell (Quantik #12, 2019)

Ua hoʻoneʻe ʻia ʻo ia mai nā hopohopo o ka honua a puni i hiki iā ia ke hoʻowahāwahā i ka French Revolution a me nā Kaua Napoleonic. ʻAʻole ʻo ia i hana no nā mea pena kiʻi, a ua ʻike mākou i nā kiʻi o kona ʻohana a pau, akā ʻaʻole mākou i ʻike i kāna mau kiʻi hilinaʻi - hoʻokahi wale nō kiʻi, kahi hiki ʻole ke ʻike i nā helehelena.

3

No ka mea, ʻaʻole i hoʻolaha ʻo Cavendish i nā hana he nui, a ʻaʻole hoʻi i hoʻolaha i nā ʻatikala i paʻi ʻia ma kekahi ʻano, ua ʻike ʻia ma hope o nā makahiki he nui ʻo ia ka mea i ʻoi aku ka nui o nā mea i ʻike ʻia. Ua ʻike maoli ʻo ia i ke kānāwai o Coulomb (ka ikaika o ka pilina ma waena o nā uku uila ma muli o ka mamao ma waena o lākou) 14 mau makahiki ma mua o Coulomb, ke kānāwai o Ohm he mau makahiki ma mua o Ohm, a me nā kānāwai he nui e pili ana i ka uila a me ka wela. Ua ʻike ʻo ia i ke ola ʻana o nā kinoea inert (ʻoi aku ka pololei, ke kū ʻana o nā mea nui i ka lewa me ka nitrogen a me ka oxygen) i hoʻokahi haneli mau makahiki ma mua o Rayleigh lāua ʻo Ramsay. ʻAʻole ʻo ia ka mea i ʻike i ka hydrogen, akā ua ʻimi maikaʻi ʻo ia iā ia a me nā kinoea ʻē aʻe. Ua kākau ʻo Humphry Davy nui ma hope mai no nā hoʻokolohua kemika a Cavendish: "ʻOiai ua hana ʻia ka nui o ia mau mea i ka wā kamaliʻi o ka ʻepekema kemika, ʻaʻole i emi ko lākou pololei a me ka nani a hiki i kēia lā."

"ʻAʻohe mea ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻoliʻoli, heroic a i ʻole ka manaʻo i kona ʻano, akā e like me ka liʻiliʻi o ka hewa, ka lawelawe a i ʻole ke kumu. ʻO kahi mea e koi ai i kahi mea i ʻoi aku ma mua o ka naʻauao maʻemaʻe e hoʻomaopopo ai, a i ʻole makemake ʻia i ka noʻonoʻo, ka noʻonoʻo, ke aloha, ka manaʻoʻiʻo, ʻaʻole ʻoluʻolu iā Cavendish. ʻO kaʻu mea e ʻike ai i ka heluhelu ʻana i kāna mau memo, he poʻo akamai i ka noʻonoʻo, ʻelua mau maka ʻoi loa no ka nānā ʻana, a me nā lima akamai loa i ka hoʻokolohua.

I nā makahiki 80 o ke kenekulia 18, ua hoʻāʻo ka mea kālaihonua Pelekane ʻo John Michell e hana i mea hana no ke ana ʻana i kēia ikaika. Akā, ua make ʻo ia me ka pau ʻole o ka hana. A ma hope mai, kūkulu ʻo Cavendish i kāna mea hana ma ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana me nā mea hana a Michell a hana i kāna mau ana kaulana (Fig. 2).

ʻO kekahi o nā mea eccentric nui loa i ka mōʻaukala o ka hoʻokumu ʻana a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka manaʻo ʻepekema - ka mea kūlohelohe kūlohelohe, hoʻokolohua a me ka theorist ʻo Henry Cavendish - he aliʻi waiwai nui a pili ʻo ia i nā Duke o Devonshire. Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Cavendish ma Nowemapa 10, 1731 ma ke kūlanakauhale Farani o Nice. Ua make kona makuahine, ʻo Lede Anne Grey, ma hope o ka hānau ʻana o kona kaikunāne, ʻo Henry ia manawa ma kahi o 2 mau makahiki. I ka makahiki 18, ua komo maikaʻi ke kanaka ʻōpio i ke Kulanui o Cambridge, akā naʻe, haʻalele ʻo ia i ʻekolu mau makahiki ma hope mai me ka loaʻa ʻole o ke kēkelē ʻepekema. Ma hope o kekahi manawa, ua hoʻi ke kanaka ʻōpio i Ladana, i ka hale o kona makuakāne, ʻo Lord Charles, he kanaka i lawa ka hoʻonaʻauao a hoihoi nui i ke kumuhana uila i kaulana ia manawa.

Ua hōʻike ʻo Sir Henry i ka hoihoi nui i ka ʻepekema (a i ʻole ke akeakamai kūlohelohe, e like me ia i kapa ʻia i kēlā manawa). Ua hoʻoili ʻia ʻo ia mai kona makuakāne, ma waho aʻe o kāna mau makemake, kahi ʻano kaohi i ka paʻi ʻana i kāna mau hana. Ua kūkulu ka ʻepekema i hale hana a me kahi papa hana no ka hana a noho mehameha, hāʻawi ʻoluʻolu i ka noiʻi ʻepekema. ʻAʻole i mare ʻo Cavendish a ua hoʻohana i kahi manawa nui o kona ola ma ke ʻano he hermit, e hoʻolaʻa loa iā ia iho i ka hana ʻepekema. ʻO ke kiʻi wale nō o ia e noho nei, ua pena ʻia ma kahi huna. Makemake ʻo ia e hoʻohui i nā ʻanuʻu waho i kona hale a kauoha i nā kauā e hoʻohana wale ia mau mea. ʻO ka poʻe i mālama ʻole i ke kauoha, ua hoʻokuʻu koke ʻo Sir Henry.

Ua hoʻomanaʻo ka poʻe o ka wā iā ia ʻo ia ka mea naʻauao i waena o ka poʻe waiwai a ʻoi aku ka waiwai o ka poʻe akamai. ʻO Charity kahi ala punahele no Cavendish e hoʻolilo kālā. Ua lilo ʻo ia i miliona miliona ma ke kōkua ʻana i nā haumāna, akā ʻaʻole i emi iki kona waiwai.

He mana kupaianaha ko Sir Henry: hiki iā ia ke hoʻoholo i ka ikaika o ke au ma ka hoʻopā ʻana i ke kaapuni uila me kona lima. Ua manaʻo ʻo Cavendish ʻo ka wela ka hopena o ka neʻe o loko o nā ʻāpana. I ka nānā ʻole ʻana i kona poʻo inoa a me kāna waiwai, ua pale ʻo Sir Henry i ke ola kaiaulu. Me ka leʻaleʻa, hele ʻo ia i nā hālāwai ʻepekema wale nō, kahi i hoʻāʻo ai ʻaʻole e huki nui iā ia iho.

ʻO Henry Cavendish - ka mea lapaʻau nui a me ka mea ʻike

ʻO ke kuhikuhi nui o kāna hana ʻepekema ʻo ia ke aʻo ʻana i nā kinoea. Mahalo iā Henry Cavendish i kēia manawa ke hoʻohana nei mākou i kahi kinoea hoʻopau i kapa ʻia ʻo hydrogen. Ma kekahi o kāna mau hana mua, i kapa ʻia ʻo "Artificial Air", ʻike ʻo ia i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka ea combustible. Ua hoʻomohala ʻo ia i kahi kaʻina no ka hōʻiliʻili, hoʻomaʻemaʻe a me ka noiʻi ʻana i nā kinoea, mahalo i loaʻa ka hydrogen a me carbon dioxide. Ma keʻano like, ua hoʻokumuʻia ke kaumaha a me ke kino o kēia mau mea. I ka makahiki 1781, ua hoʻoholo ka ʻepekema i ke ʻano kino o ka ea, a ma hope iki, i ka makahiki 1784, i ka puhi ʻana i ka hydrogen, ua hoʻoholo ʻia ke ʻano kemika o ka wai, i hoʻololi i ka manaʻo e pili ana i kona ʻano elemental. Eia kekahi, mahalo i kēia hoʻokolohua, ua ʻike ʻia he 20.83% ka oxygen ma ka lewa. Ua hoʻoponopono ka poʻe ʻepekema hou i kēia kiʻi i kahi kikoʻī - 20,

I ka makahiki 1772 ua ʻike ʻia ka nitrogen e nā ʻepekema. Me ke kōkua ʻana o kahi uila i hana ʻia e ka uila, ua loaʻa iā Henry ka nitric oxide a ua aʻo i kāna mau waiwai. Ua hōʻoia ʻo ia i ka wā e hele ai ka ʻea uila ma ka papa o ka ea ma luna o ka ʻili o ka wai, hoʻopili ʻia ka nitrogen me ka oxygen, a loaʻa ka waikawa nitric. Eia kekahi, ua hōʻike hou aku ʻo Cavendish ʻaʻole hoʻokō ka hoʻokahi haneli o ka leo mua o ka ea me ka oxygen. ʻO ka mea pōʻino, ma muli o ka hemahema o ka nānā ʻana a me ka primitiveness o nā mea kani o ia mau manawa, ʻaʻole hiki iā Henry ke ʻike i kahi kinoea ʻē aʻe, argon, ma ka ʻaoʻao o ka lewa. Ua hana ʻia kēia ma hope ma 1894 e William Ramsay.

Aia kekahi kikoʻī hoihoi hou aʻe: Ua hana ʻo Cavendish i kahi noiʻi e pili ana i ka nitrogen e like me kekahi kanaka ʻepekema ʻo D. Rutherford. A ma muli o kona haʻahaʻa, ʻo Henry, ma hope o ka hana, haʻi wale i nā hopena me kāna hoaaloha a hoʻopuka i kāna hana me ka lohi nui. ʻO ka hopena, ua lilo ʻo Rutherford i mea ʻike piha i kēia kinoea.

Lako noiʻi kinoea

Noiʻi kino na Henry Cavendish

Ma ke kahua o ka physics, loaʻa iā Henry Cavendish nā hoʻokolohua ma ke ana ʻana i ka ikaika umekaumaha. Ma muli o kēia mau hoʻokolohua, ua helu ʻia ka nui o ka honua. No ka helu ʻana, ua hoʻohana ʻo Henry i nā mea hana i kūkulu ʻia e John Michell. He kaulike kaʻa ʻana i ka huki ʻana ma waena o ʻelua pōpō kepau ke kaumaha 350 paona a me ʻelua mau paona 1.61 paona. ʻO ka hopena, ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ka nui o ka honua he 5.48 mau manawa kiʻekiʻe ma mua o ka nui o ka wai. Ma hope mai, ua hoʻohui ʻo J. G. Poynting he 5.448 ka hopena, ʻo ia ka awelika ma hope o 29 mau hoʻokolohua.

Ua kākau ʻo Cavendish i nā hana he nui no ka Royal Society, i paʻi ʻia i hoʻokahi haneli mau makahiki ma hope i ka makahiki 1879 e J. Maxwell. ʻO kāna mau mea i ʻike ʻia ma ka ʻoihana uila penei:

  • ʻO ka wehewehe ʻana o ka mana uila, kahi āna i hāʻawi ai i ka inoa "Degree of electrification."
  • Nā ʻano no ka helu ʻana i nā kaha o nā pōʻai a me nā capacitors.
  • Dielectric mau o nā mea.
  • ʻO ka pilina ma waena o kēia manawa a me ka hiki, i kapa ʻia i kēia manawa ʻo ke kānāwai Ohm.
  • ʻO ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o nā au i nā kaapuni uila like.
  • ʻO ke kānāwai huinahā inverse o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ikaika uila me ka mamao (ke kānāwai Coulomb).
  • ʻO ka hoʻokolohua, ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka mana o nā media like ʻole i ka capacitance o nā capacitors.
  • Me ke kōkua ʻana o nā kaulike torsion, ua hoʻokūpaʻa ʻia ke kānāwai o ka gravity honua i ʻike ʻia e Newton.
  • Ua hoʻoholo ʻo ia i ka wela i ka wā o ka hoʻololi ʻana a me ka hiki ke wela o kekahi mau mea.
  • Ua hana ʻo ia i kahi mea hana no ke aʻo ʻana i kahi hui kinoea i loaʻa nā mea puhi ahi - he eudiometer.

Ua make ʻo Sir Henry i ka lā 24 o Malaki, 1810 i ke 79 o kona mau makahiki. Aia i loko o ka palapala kauoha a Cavendish e kanu iā ia i loko o ka pahu pahu me ka ʻole o ka palapala. ʻOiai he hoʻomana ʻole ʻo Cavendish, ua pāpā ʻo Cavendish i nā hana hoʻomana e mālama ʻia ma luna o kona kino ma hope o ka make. Ua kapa ʻia kahi hale hana ma Cambridge.

ʻO Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) he physicist Pelekania a me ka chemist i ʻike ʻia no kāna mau ʻike e like me ke ʻano o ka wai a i ʻole ka helu ʻana o ka mānoanoa o ka Honua. ʻO ia hoʻi ka mea mua i loaʻa ka hydrogen, a mai kāna hana i unuhi ai i ka helu ʻana o ka umekaumaha mau.

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Cavendish ma Nice i ka makahiki 1731, ma kahi i ʻike ai kona mau mākua iā lākou iho i kahi kūlana ʻike ʻole. Ua aʻo ʻo ia ma Cambridge akā ʻaʻole i hoʻopau i kāna kekelē no nā kumu kula ʻē aʻe. ʻO ka hoʻoilina i loaʻa iā ia e ʻae iā ia e noʻonoʻo pono i ka noiʻi ʻana me ka ʻole e hoʻopilikia ʻia e nā hālāwai pule hebedoma ma ka Royal Society.

Ma waho aʻe o kāna talena ma ke ʻano he ʻepekema, ua ʻike ʻia ʻo Cavendish no kāna ʻano ʻano ʻole. ʻAʻole makemake ʻo ia i ka hana pilikino o kekahi, i hoʻonui nui ʻia i ka wā e pili ana i nā wahine. ʻO kona hilahila, manaʻo ʻole, a me kona ʻono no ka mehameha, ua alakaʻi ka poʻe he nui i ka manaʻo ua loaʻa iā ia ka maʻi o Asperger.

ʻO kēia ka mea i hoʻolaha ʻole ʻia ai kekahi o kāna mau mea i ʻike ai a hiki i kona make ʻana, me ka hopena o nā mea ʻepekema ʻē aʻe i hoʻohana pono i ka pono a Cavendish i hoʻopuka ai i kāna hana.

kuhikuhi

  • 1 Ka moolelo
    • 1.1 Imi
    • 1.2 Ka hoihoi i ka ʻepekema
    • 1.3 Ola kanaka makua
    • 1.4 Hui Alii
    • 1.5 Make
  • 2 Haawina
    • 2.1 Loaʻa i ka hydrogen
    • 2.2 Hoʻokolohua Cavendish: ʻAi honua
    • 2.3 Uila
  • 3 Nā loulou

moʻokalaleo

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Henry Cavendish ma ʻOkakopa 10, 1731 ma Nice, i kēia lā ma Farani, a laila lilo ʻo ia i ke aupuni o Sardinia.

ʻO kona mau mākua, nā lālā waiwai o nā aliʻi Enelani, i laila e hoʻāʻo a hoʻohaʻahaʻa i ke olakino palupalu o ka Lede Anne Grey, ka makuahine o ka mea ʻepekema e hiki mai ana. E make ka wahine i nā makahiki ʻelua.

Mahalo i kahi kūlana ʻohana maikaʻi, ua ulu ʻo Cavendish ʻōpio me nā ʻoluʻolu āpau. Eia naʻe, i kēia manawa, ua hoʻomaka nā hōʻailona o kona ʻano mehameha. Wahi a kāna mea kākau moʻolelo, ʻaʻole wale ʻo ia i pale i ka launa pū ʻana me nā poʻe ʻē aʻe, akā ʻo ka hōʻole ʻana e hoʻopili i kahi kanaka i palena i ka ʻeha.

Wahi a ka poʻe kākau moʻolelo, ua hoʻokaʻawale loa ʻo Henry, me nā hiʻohiʻona hohonu a me nā ʻano misogynistic. He nui ka poʻe i manaʻo ua loaʻa ʻo ia i ka Asperger's Syndrome, kahi e wehewehe ai i kona ʻano nohona.

Ua noho hoʻokahi ʻo Cavendish i kona ola ʻana. ʻIke wale kona ʻanakala ʻo George Cavendish iā ia no kekahi mau minuke i ka makahiki. ʻO kona huhū i nā wāhine, ua kamaʻilio ʻo ia me nā kauā ma o nā palapala i kākau ʻia, me ka hoʻoweliweli ʻana e kipaku i ka mea i hele mai i mua ona.

noiʻi

ʻO ke kula ʻo Newcomb ma Hackney kahi i koho ʻia no Cavendish e hoʻomaka ai i kāna aʻo ʻana i kona wā he 11 makahiki. I kona pau ʻana i kēia pae, i ka makahiki 1749 ua komo ʻo ia i ka Peterhouse o ke Kulanui o Cambridge.,

Wahi a kāna mau kumu, he haumāna noiʻi ʻo ia, ʻoiai ke kaumaha o kona hilahila. ʻAʻole ʻo ia e kamaʻilio a me he mea lā ua paʻa mau i kona honua ponoʻī.

Akā naʻe, ʻaʻole kēia ke kumu i loaʻa ʻole ai iā ia kahi diploma mai Cambridge. Ua hōʻole ʻo Cavendish e komo i nā hana hoʻomana i hana ʻia ma ke kulanui, he mea pono ia. No laila, i ka pau ʻana o kā lākou mau makahiki aʻo i ka makahiki 1753, ʻaʻole lākou i ʻae e hāʻawi iā ia i inoa.

Ma hope o kēlā, ua haʻalele ʻo Cavendish i kahi kau ma Paris, kahi i hoʻonui ai i kona ʻike i ka physics a me ka makemakika.

Ka hoihoi i ka ʻepekema

I kona hoʻi ʻana i ʻEnelani, ua hoʻomau ʻo Cavendish i ka hohonu o nā kumuhana ʻepekema i makemake nui iā ia. ʻO kona makuakāne, he mea makemake i ka ʻepekema, ua hana nui i ka wā e hiki mai ana kāna keiki, ʻoiai ʻo ia i alakaʻi iā ia i nā hoʻokolohua i kūkulu ʻia ma ka Royal Society. Eia kekahi, koi ʻo ia iā lākou e kūkulu i kahi hale hana pilikino no kāna keiki.

I ka make ʻana o ka makuakāne o Cavendish, ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia e hana pū me Charles Blagden, ʻo ia hoʻi ka mea nāna e mālama i ka honua mai ka ʻepekema.

ʻO ke kanaka makua

Ua koʻikoʻi loa ka nohona Cavendish. A hiki i kona mau makahiki he kanaha, ua noho ʻo ia ma kahi kālā liʻiliʻi a kona makuakāne i hoʻolilo ai. Ua hoʻololi kēia i ka 1773, ua loaʻa iā ia kahi kālā nui mai kona ʻanakala mai, ʻo Lord George Cavendish.

ʻO ka huina, ua loaʻa iā ia ma luna o hoʻokahi miliona mau paona, a lilo ʻo ia i hoʻokahi o nā miliona miliona o kona manawa. Ua ʻōlelo kekahi hoa naʻauao, ʻo ka French Baptiste Biot, ʻo Cavendish "ka mea waiwai loa o ka poʻe naʻauao, a ʻoi aku paha ka naʻauao o ka poʻe waiwai a pau."

ʻOiai ʻo kāna waiwai i loaʻa hou, ʻaʻole i hoʻololi ʻo Cavendish i kona ʻano ola. Wahi a nā kumu a pau, ʻaʻohe ona hoihoi i ke kālā a ʻo kāna mau lilo koʻikoʻi wale nō he mau mea ʻepekema a me nā puke e pili ana i ka physics a me ke kemika.

Ua ulu nui kāna waihona no laila pono ʻo ia e hoʻokomo iā ia i loko o kahi hale kaʻawale, wehe ʻia i kahi hui koho o nā hoa hana.

Hui Alii

ʻAʻole hoʻi i loli kona ʻano. ʻO kāna ʻoihana wale nō ʻo ia ka noiʻi ʻepekema, āna i hana ai ma kona home ponoʻī ʻo Lākana. He mau pilina pili wale nō kāna i nā hālāwai o ka Royal Society, kahi āna i hōʻike ai i kāna mau ʻike.

Ua mālama kēia kula i ka ʻaina awakea i kēlā me kēia pule, kahi i hōʻike ai nā ʻepekema i kā lākou ʻike. ʻOiai ʻo ia i waena o nā mea like, mālama ʻo Cavendish i kona hilahila i kēlā me kēia manawa. ʻO ke koena o nā lālā i ʻike i ko lākou ʻano ʻano, no laila e noho mālie lākou.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo kāna mea kākau moʻolelo, ua hāpai ka Royal Society i kahi hoʻolālā e hoʻoponopono ai: e hele pū lākou me ia me ka manawaleʻa a e kamaʻilio lākou me he mea lā e neʻe ana lākou i kahi ʻole.

Me he mea lā, inā he mea hoihoi ka mea i ʻōlelo ʻia, hiki iā Cavendish ke pane me ka hāwanawana. Inā ʻaʻole, lohe wale ka mea kamaʻilio i kahi ʻūhā a ʻike koke ʻo Cavendish e hele i ke kihi mālie loa o ka lumi.

ʻO kāna hana naʻe, ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ia i waena o nā mea noiʻi. No laila, i ka makahiki 1773, ua koho ʻia ʻo Cavendish i lālā o ka Society of Antiquaries, a me kahi kahu no ka Hale Hōʻikeʻike Pelekane. Ma hope mai, i ka makahiki 1803, ua ʻae ke Keʻena o Farani iā ​​​​ia i loko o kāna mau kūlana.

make

Ua make ʻo Henry Cavendish i ka lā 24 o Pepeluali, 1810 ma kona home ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Lākana. He 78 kona mau makahiki a ua haʻalele ʻo ia i kahi hoʻoilina ʻepekema nui a miliona.

ʻO ka hōʻoia o kona ola ʻana, ʻo ia ka moʻolelo o ka lā o kona make ʻana. Me he mea lā, i kona ʻike ʻana i kona hopena, ua kauoha ʻo Cavendish i kāna kauā ʻaʻole e hoʻokokoke kekahi iā ia ma mua o ka pō. No ka hopohopo o ke kauwa i kona haku, ua hoʻomaopopo ʻo ia i kekahi o kāna mau hoaaloha, ʻo Sir Everard, i hele koke mai i ka hale.

Ma laila ʻo ia i loaʻa ai kahi ʻepekema make, akā me ke ʻano like. ʻOiai ʻo kona kūlana, haʻi ʻo ia iā ia he mea makehewa ke noho ʻana ma laila ʻoiai e make ana ʻo ia a ʻaʻole ia e kōkua iā ia.

Eia hou, ua kamaʻilio ʻo ia i ke kauā, me ka ʻōlelo aʻo a me ka ʻōlelo ʻana ma kahi kokoke i 80 mau makahiki, ʻo ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o kona ola e hoʻonui wale i kona ʻeha.

Ua koi kona hoaaloha e noho me ia i ka pō a pau a hiki i ka pau ʻana o ka Cavendish i ka wanaʻao.

hāʻawi

He mea koʻikoʻi ka hāʻawi ʻana o Henry Cavendish i ka ʻepekema no kona manawa. ʻO nā mea nui i hoʻolaʻa ʻia i ke aʻo ʻana i ka kemika o ka ea a me ka wai, a me ka nui o ka Honua. Wahi a ka poʻe akamai, ʻokoʻa lākou e ka pololei kiʻekiʻe o kā lākou helu ʻana.

ʻO kona makemake ʻole i ka pilikanaka i ʻōlelo mua ʻia, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka ʻike ma mua o kona pono.

I ka pau ʻana o ke kenekulia ʻumikūmāiwa, i ka nānā ʻana i kāna mau palapala, ua ʻike ʻo ia ua loaʻa iā ia nā ʻike e pili ana i ka uila i ʻike ʻole ʻia e kekahi. Ua koi kēia i nā ʻepekema ʻē aʻe e lawe i ka hōʻaiʻē e hoʻokūkū.

Loaʻa i ka hydrogen

I ka makahiki 1766, ua hana ʻo Cavendish i kekahi mau hoʻokolohua me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā ʻakika ikaika (e hoʻoheheʻe ʻia ma ka hoʻopili ʻana me kahi wai wai) a me kekahi mau metala.

Ma muli o kēia mau haʻawina, ua loaʻa ka hydrogen no ka manawa mua, kahi mea i kapa ʻia e ka ʻepekema ʻo phlogiston ("ea ahi"). Ua ʻike pū ʻo ia he māmā ke kinoea.

Ma hope mai, i ka makahiki 1781, ua ʻike ʻo ia inā e puhi ʻia ka hydrogen i loko o kahi pahu pani, e uhi ʻia nā paia i ka wai. Ua ʻae kēia iā ia e hōʻoia he nui nā ʻāpana o ka element, kahi mea i ʻike ʻole ʻia a hiki i kēlā manawa.

Ua noiʻi pū ʻo ia i ke ʻano o ka lewa. Ua like loa kā lākou hopena me nā mea i loaʻa i kēia lā me nā mea hana ʻoi aku ka holomua. No laila, ua ʻike ʻo ia i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka carbon dioxide a ua manaʻo ʻo ia ma kahi o hoʻokahi haneli o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā kinoea hanohano.

ʻO ka Cavendish Experiment: The Density of the Earth

ʻO kāna "Cavendish Experiment" kaulana i ʻae iā ia e helu i ka nui o ka Honua a alakaʻi i ka ʻike ʻana i ke ʻano o ka umekaumaha honua.

Ua paʻi ʻo Cavendish i kāna mau hopena i ka makahiki 1789 ma kāna hana ʻo Experiments to Determine the Density of the Earth. ʻO ka ʻikepili i hāʻawi ʻia e nā ʻepekema ʻo ka nui o ka honua he 5.45 mau manawa o ka wai, kahi kokoke loa i nā ana o kēia manawa.

Ua hoʻoholo ka mea noiʻi i ka mānoanoa o ka lewa a hōʻike hoʻokolohua ua mālama ʻia ke kānāwai o ka gravity o Newton no nā kino ʻelua.

uila

ʻOiai ʻaʻole i ʻike ʻia kāna hana a hiki i hoʻokahi kenekulia ma hope mai, ua hana ʻo Cavendish i nā mea nui i ʻike ʻia ma ke kahua o ka uila. Aia ma waena o lākou ke kānāwai o ka huki ʻana ma waena o nā uku uila a me ka manaʻo o ka uila.

ʻO ka hōʻoiaʻiʻo o ka loaʻa ʻana o kēia mau mea i ʻike ʻia i ka wā i noho ai ka ʻepekema ʻo ia ke ʻano o ke ana ʻana i ke au uila.

No ka loaʻa ʻole o nā mea hana kūpono, ua hoʻopili ʻo Cavendish i nā kaula i kona kino a ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻo ia i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana, me ka helu ʻana i ka ikaika e like me ka ʻeha āna i manaʻo ai.

nā loulou

  1. EcuRed. ʻO Henry Cavendish. Kiʻi ʻia mai ecured.cu
  2. Martinez Medina, Nuria. ʻO Henry Cavendish a me ka umekaumaha honua. Kiʻi ʻia mai rtve.es
  3. Elises Ortiz, Anela. ʻO Henry Cavendish, biography, ʻo wai, ʻo ia, hāʻawi, kāna hana, kemika, physics, hydrogen. Ua kiʻi ʻia mai history.pcweb.info
  4. Levere, Trevor H. Henry Cavendish. Ua kiʻi ʻia mai britannica.com
  5. Nā ʻepekema Kaulana ʻo Henry Cavendish. Ua kiʻi ʻia mai famousscientists.org
  6. Kauka ʻino. ʻO Henry Cavendish (1731-1810). Kiʻi ʻia mai
  7. Scratch, Lydia S. Henry Cavendish. Ua kiʻi ʻia mai chemexplained.com


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