Pehea e hana ai i ka mokulele he aha

ʻO kahi mokulele mokulele (mai ka French diriger - "hoʻokele") he mokulele hoʻokele ponoʻī, ʻoi aku ka māmā ma mua o ka ea. E haʻi mākou e pili ana i kona mōʻaukala a me nā ala e kūkulu ai i kēia mokulele iā mākou iho ma hope o ka ʻatikala.

Nā mea hoʻolālā

ʻEkolu mau ʻano nui o nā mokulele mokulele: palupalu, semi-rigid a ʻoʻoleʻa. ʻEhā mau ʻāpana nui o lākou a pau:

  • ʻO ka pūpū cigar a i ʻole ka baluna i piha i ke kinoea i emi iho ka nui ma mua o ka ea;
  • cabin a gondola paha, i hoʻokuʻu ʻia ma lalo o ka pūpū, kahi e lawe ai i ka poʻe holo moku a me nā mea holo;
  • nā enekini e hoʻokele i nā propellers;
  • nā hoeuli hoʻopaʻa a me ke kūpaʻa e kōkua i ke alakaʻi ʻana i ka mokulele.

He aha ka mokulele palupalu? He baluna kēia me kahi keʻena i hoʻopaʻa ʻia me nā kaula. Inā hoʻokuʻu ʻia ke kinoea, e nalowale ke ʻano o ka pūpū.

i kūkulu ʻia i ka makahiki 1924

ʻO ka moku ea semi-rigid (kiʻi ʻia ma ka ʻatikala) pili pū i ke kaomi kūloko e mālama ai i kona ʻano, akā aia nō ke ʻano keel metala e holo longitudinally ma ke kumu o ka baluna a kākoʻo i ka hale.

ʻO nā moku ea ʻoʻoleʻa he ʻāpana alumini māmā māmā i uhi ʻia i ka lole. ʻAʻole lākou i sila. Aia i loko o kēia hale kekahi mau baluna, hiki ke hoʻopiha ʻia kēlā me kēia me ke kinoea. Mālama nā mokulele o kēia ʻano i ko lākou ʻano, me ka nānā ʻole i ke ʻano o ka hoʻopiha ʻana o nā cylinders.

kiʻi mokulele

He aha nā kinoea i hoʻohana ʻia?

ʻO ka maʻamau, hoʻohana ʻia ka hydrogen a me ka helium e hāpai i nā mokulele. ʻO ka hydrogen ke kinoea māmā loa i ʻike ʻia a no laila ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hiki ke lawe. Eia nō naʻe, ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻopau ʻia, a he nui nā pōʻino make. ʻAʻole māmā ka Helium, akā ʻoi aku ka palekana no ka mea ʻaʻole ia e wela.

Ua hana ʻia nā cylinders lawe kinoea o nā moku mokulele mua i ka lole pulupulu i hoʻopili ʻia me ka rubber, a ua hoʻololi hope ʻia e nā lole synthetic e like me neoprene a me lavsan.

Moolelo o ka hanaia

Ua kūkulu ʻia ka mokulele kūleʻa mua ma 1852 ma Farani e Henri Giffard. Ua hana ʻo ia i ka mīkini mahu 160 kilokani e hiki ke hoʻomohala i ka mana o 3 lita. s., ua lawa ia no ka hookele ana i ka propeller nui ma ka mama o 110 kipi i ka minuke. I mea e hoʻokiʻekiʻe ai i ke kaumaha o ka mana, ua hoʻopiha ʻo ia i kahi baluna 44-mika me ka hydrogen a, e hoʻomaka ana mai ka hippodrome Parisian, lele i ka wikiwiki o 10 km / h, e uhi ana i kahi mamao o 30 km.

I ka makahiki 1872, ua hoʻokomo mua ka ʻenekinia Kelemania ʻo Paul Hahenlein a hoʻohana i ka ʻenekini puhi ahi ma luna o ka moku mokulele, i hoʻoulu ʻia e ke kinoea mai kahi pahu.

I ka makahiki 1883, ʻo nā poʻe Farani ʻo Albert lāua ʻo Gaston Tissandier ka poʻe mua i lele maikaʻi i ka baluna i hoʻohana ʻia e kahi kaʻa uila.

Ua kūkulu ʻia ka moku mokulele ʻoʻoleʻa mua me kahi pahu alumini ma Kelemānia i ka makahiki 1897.

ʻO Alberto Santos-Dumont, he kamaʻāina ʻo Brazil e noho ana ma Palika, ua hoʻonohonoho i nā moʻolelo he 14 i hana ʻia e ia mai ka makahiki 1898 a hiki i 1905, i hoʻohana ʻia e nā ʻenekini puhi ahi.

moku mokulele nui loa

Helu von Zeppelin

ʻO ka mea hoʻohana kūleʻa loa o nā baluna paʻa kaʻa kaʻa ʻo Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, nāna i kūkulu i kāna moku mokulele mua i ka makahiki 1900. He aha ka LZ-1? ʻO ka Luftschiff Zeppelin, a i ʻole Zeppelin mokulele, he ʻenehana loea, 128 m ka lōʻihi a me 11.6 m ke anawaena, i hana ʻia me kahi pahu alumini me 24 mau kaola longitudinal i hoʻopili ʻia e 16 mau apo transverse, a ua alakaʻi ʻia e nā ʻenekini ʻelua me ka mana. o 16 l. Me.

Hiki i ka mokulele ke piʻi i ka wikiwiki a hiki i 32 km / h. Ua hoʻomau ka Count i ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻana i ka hoʻolālā i ka wā o ke Kaua Honua I, i ka wā i hoʻohana ʻia ai ka nui o kāna mau mokulele (i kapa ʻia ʻo Zeppelins) e pākuʻi iā Paris a me Lākana. Ua hoʻohana pū ʻia nā mokulele o kēia ʻano e nā Allies i ka wā o ke Kaua Honua II, ka mea nui no nā mākaʻi anti-submarine.

I nā makahiki 20 a me 30 o ke kenekulia i hala, ma ʻEulopa a me ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, hoʻomau ka hana ʻana o nā mokulele. I Iulai 1919, ua hana ka mokulele Pelekane R-34 i ʻelua mau mokulele transatlantic.

Na'i Aupuni o ka Pole Akau

I ka makahiki 1926, ua hoʻohana maikaʻi ʻia ka mokulele mokulele semi-rigid Italia (kiʻi ʻia ma ka ʻatikala) "Norway" e Roald Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth a me General Umberto Nobile e ʻimi i ka Pole ʻĀkau. ʻO ka huakaʻi aʻe, aia ma luna o kekahi moku mokulele, alakaʻi ʻia e Umberto Nobile.

I ka huina, ua hoʻolālā ʻo ia e hana i nā mokulele 5, akā ua hāʻule ka mokulele, i kūkulu ʻia ma 1924, i ka makahiki 1928. ʻO ka hana e hoʻihoʻi i nā polar polar i lawe ʻia ma mua o 49 mau lā, kahi i make ai nā mea hoʻopakele 9, me Amundsen.

ʻO wai ka inoa o ka moku mokulele 1924? ʻO ka hā o ka mokulele mokulele N, i kūkulu ʻia e like me ka papahana a ma ka hale hana ʻo Umberto Nobile ma Roma, ua kapa ʻia ʻo "Italia".

moku ea o ka honua

Aloha

I ka makahiki 1928, ua kūkulu ʻo Hugo Eckener i ka baluna Kelemania i ka mokulele ʻo Graf Zeppelin. Ma mua o ka haʻalele ʻana, ʻeiwa mau makahiki ma hope mai, ua hana ʻo ia i 590 mau mokulele, me 144 transoceanic crossings. I ka makahiki 1936, ua wehe ʻo Kelemania i nā kaʻa kaʻa kaʻa transatlantic maʻamau ma Hindenburg.

ʻOiai ʻo kēia mau holomua, ua hoʻopau nā mokulele o ka honua i ka hana ʻana i ka hopena o nā makahiki 1930 ma muli o ko lākou kumukūʻai kiʻekiʻe, haʻahaʻa ka wikiwiki, a me ka nāwaliwali i ka wā ʻino. Eia kekahi, he mau pōʻino, ʻo ka mea kaulana loa ʻo ia ka pahū ʻana o ka Hindenburg i hoʻopiha ʻia me ka hydrogen i ka makahiki 1937, i hui pū ʻia me nā holomua o ka hana mokulele i nā 30s a me 40s. hana i kēia ʻano o ka lawe ʻana ma ke ʻano kalepa.

Holomua ʻenehana

Ua hana ʻia nā pahu kinoea o nā moku ea mua mai ka mea i kapa ʻia ʻo "ʻili o ka ʻeli gula": ua ʻoki ʻia nā ʻōpū o ka bipi a laila ʻō. No ka hana ʻana i hoʻokahi mokulele, ʻelua haneli a me kanalima tausani bipi.

I ka wā o ke Kaua Honua Mua, ua kāpae ʻo Kelemania a me kona mau hoa i ka hana ʻana i nā sausages i lawa nā mea e hana ai i nā mokulele e hoʻokō ai i ka pana ʻana o ʻEnelani. ʻO ka holomua o ka ʻenehana textile, me ka hana ʻana o ka rubber vulcanized i ka makahiki 1839 e ka mea kālepa ʻAmelika ʻo Charles Goodyear, ua hoʻāla i ka pahū o nā mea hou i ka hana ʻana i ka mokulele. I nā makahiki 1930 mua, ua kūkulu ka US Navy i ʻelua "lele lele mokulele," ʻo Akron a me ka Macon, nona nā hull i wehe ʻia e hana i nā ʻauwaʻa F9C Sparrowhawk. Ua hāʻule nā ​​moku ma hope o ka hāʻule ʻana i loko o kahi ʻino, me ka loaʻa ʻole o ka manawa e hōʻoia i ko lākou hiki ke kaua.

ʻO ka moʻolelo honua no ka lōʻihi o ka lele i hoʻonohonoho ʻia i ka makahiki 1937 e ka baluna "USSR-B6 Osoaviakhim". Ua hoʻohana ka mokulele i 130 mau hola 27 mau minuke i ka lewa. ʻO nā kūlanakauhale i kipa ʻia e ka mokulele mokulele ʻo Nizhny Novgorod, Belozersk, Rostov, Kursk, Voronezh, Penza, Dolgoprudny a me Novgorod.

airship he aha

Baluna napoo o ka la

A laila nalo akula nā moku lele. No laila, i ka lā 6 o Mei, 1937, ua pahū ka Hindenburg ma luna o Lakehurst ma New Jersey - 36 mau ohua a me nā poʻe holo moku i make i loko o ka pōʻai ahi. Ua paʻa ka pōʻino ma ke kiʻiʻoniʻoni, a ʻike ka honua i ke ʻano o ka pahū ʻana o ka mokulele Kelemania.

He aha ka hydrogen a me ka pōʻino i maopopo i nā mea a pau, a ʻo ka manaʻo e hiki i nā kānaka ke neʻe me ka ʻoluʻolu ma lalo o kahi pahu me kēia kinoea ua lilo i mea ʻae ʻole i ka manawa koke. Hoʻohana wale nā ​​mokulele o kēia ʻano i ka helium, ʻaʻole hiki ke puhi ʻia. ʻO nā mokulele e like me nā "waʻa lele" kiʻekiʻe ka wikiwiki o Pan American Airways.

ʻO nā mea ʻenekinia hou i komo i ka hoʻolālā ʻana i nā mokulele o kēia ʻano ke kanikau nei a hiki i ka makahiki 1999, i ka wā i paʻi ʻia ai kahi hōʻiliʻili o nā ʻatikala e pili ana i ke kūkulu ʻana i kahi mokulele i kapa ʻia ʻo Airship Technology, ʻo ka puke haʻawina i loaʻa ʻo Aircraft Design na Charles Burgess i paʻi ʻia ma 1927.

Nā hanana hou

I ka hopena, ua haʻalele nā ​​mea hoʻolālā mokulele i ka manaʻo o ka lawe ʻana i nā poʻe kaʻa a nānā i ka halihali ukana, i kēia lā ʻaʻole i hoʻokō pono ʻia e ke kaʻaahi, ke alanui a me ke kai moana, a ʻaʻole hiki ke hiki i nā wahi he nui.

ʻO nā mea mua o ia mau papahana ke loaʻa nei ka ikaika. I nā makahiki 1970, ua hoʻāʻo ʻo William Miller, he mea hoʻokele moku kaua o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, i kahi mokuahi deltoid aerodynamic i kapa ʻia ʻo Aereon 26 ma New Jersey. Akā, ua pau nā kālā a Miller ma hope o ka lele hoʻāʻo mua. Pono ka hoʻokumu ʻana i kahi mokulele ukana prototype i kahi hoʻopukapuka kālā nui, a ʻaʻole lawa nā mea kūʻai aku.

Ma Kelemānia, ua hele nui ʻo Cargolifter AG i ke kūkulu ʻana i ka hale kūʻokoʻa kūʻokoʻa nui loa o ka honua, ʻoi aku ma mua o 300 mika ka lōʻihi, kahi i hoʻolālā ai ka hui e kūkulu i kahi moku helium semi-rigid cargo airship. ʻO ke ʻano o ka lilo ʻana i paionia ma kēia kahua o ka aeronautics i akaka i ka makahiki 2002, i ka wā i hoʻopiʻi ʻia ai ka hui, me nā pilikia ʻenehana a me nā kālā liʻiliʻi, no ka banekorupa. ʻO ka hangar, aia ma kahi kokoke i Berlin, ua hoʻohuli ʻia i loko o ka paka wai loko nui loa ma ʻEulopa, Tropical Islands.

pehea e hana ai i ka mokulele

I ka ʻimi ʻana i ka mana

ʻO kekahi hanauna hou o nā ʻenekini hoʻolālā, ʻo kekahi o lākou i kākoʻo ʻia e ke aupuni nui a me ka hoʻopukapuka pilikino, ke manaʻoʻiʻo nei, ma muli o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā ʻenehana hou a me nā mea hou, e hiki i ke kaiāulu ke pōmaikaʻi mai ke kūkulu ʻana i nā mokulele. I Malaki i ka makahiki i hala, ua mālama ka Hale o nā Lunamaka'āinana o ʻAmelika i kahi hālāwai i hoʻolaʻa ʻia no kēia ʻano kaʻa mokulele, ʻo ia ka mea e hoʻolalelale i ke kaʻina hana o kā lākou hoʻomohala ʻana.

ʻO Boeing a me Northrop Grumman ke hoʻomohala nei i nā mokulele mokulele i nā makahiki i hala iho nei. Ua kūkulu ʻo Russia, Brazil a me Kina i kā lākou mau prototypes ponoʻī. Ua hana ʻo Kanada i nā hoʻolālā no nā mokulele he nui, e like me ka Solarship, e like me ka mea hoʻoheheʻe aihue me nā paneli lā i kau ʻia ma luna o kona mau ʻēheu i piha i ka helium. Aia nā kānaka a pau i ka heihei e lilo i ka helu ʻekahi a e hoʻokolo i ka mākeke kaʻa kaʻa kālā he nui-biliona. I kēia manawa, ʻekolu mau papahana e huki nei i ka manaʻo nui:

  • English Airlander 10, na Hybrid Air Vehicles - i kēia manawa ka mokulele nui loa ma ka honua;
  • LMH-1, Lockheed Martin;
  • Aeroscraft, Worldwide Eros Corp, i hana ʻia e Igor Pasternak, he malihini mai Ukraine.

mokulele no na keiki

ʻO ka baluna hoʻomalu lekiō e hana iā ʻoe iho

No ka loiloi i nā pilikia e kū mai ana i ka wā o ke kūkulu ʻana i nā mokulele o kēia ʻano, hiki iā ʻoe ke kūkulu i kahi mokulele o nā keiki. ʻOi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o nā hiʻohiʻona āu e kūʻai ai a loaʻa ka hui maikaʻi loa o ka paʻa a me ka maneuverability.

No ka hana ʻana i kahi mokulele miniature, pono ʻoe i kēia mau mea:

  • ʻEkolu mau mīkini liʻiliʻi e kaupaona ana he 2.5g a i ʻole.
  • Hiki ke kūʻai ʻia kahi mea lawe micro a hiki i 2 g (no ka laʻana, DelTang Rx33, ma waena o nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe, mai nā hale kūʻai pūnaewele kūikawā e like me Micron Radio Control, Aether Sciences RC a i ʻole Plantraco), i hoʻohana ʻia e kahi cell lithium polymer cell. E hōʻoia i ka pili ʻana o nā mea hoʻohui kaʻa a me ka mea hoʻokipa, i ʻole e koi ʻia ke kūʻai ʻana.
  • Mea hoʻouna kūpono me ʻekolu a ʻoi aʻe paha nā kaha.
  • ʻO 70-140 mAh LiPo pākaukau a me ka mea hoʻoili kūpono. No ka mālamaʻana i ka nui o ke kaumaha ma lalo o 10g, pono ke kaumaha a hiki i ka 2.5g. ʻO ka mana nui o ka pila e hōʻoia i ka manawa lele lōʻihi: ma 125 mAh, hiki iāʻoe ke hoʻokō i ka lōʻihi o 30 mau minuke.
  • ʻO nā uwea e hoʻopili ana i ka pākaukau i ka mea hoʻokipa.
  • ʻEkolu mea hoʻolele liʻiliʻi.
  • Kookoo kalapona (1 mm), 30 knm ka loa.
  • ʻO kahi ʻāpana depron 10 x 10 cm.
  • Cellophane, lipine, superglue a me nā ʻoki.

E kūʻai i ka baluna latex piha i ka helium. ʻO ka mea maʻamau a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea ʻē aʻe me ka nui o ka ukana ma kahi o 10 g. No ka hoʻokō ʻana i ke kaumaha i makemake ʻia, hoʻohui ʻia ka ballast, kahi i wehe ʻia e like me ka helium leaks.

Hoʻopili ʻia nā ʻāpana i ke koʻokoʻo me ka lipine adhesive. Hoʻohana ʻia ke kaʻa mua no ka neʻe ʻana i mua, a kau ʻia ka hope i perpendicularly. Aia ke kolu o ka enekini ma ke kikowaena o ka umekaumaha a ua kuhikuhi ia i lalo. Hoʻopili ʻia ka propeller iā ia ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe i hiki iā ia ke hoʻokuke i ka mokulele i luna. Pono e hoʻopili ʻia nā kaʻa me ka superglue.

Ma ka hoʻopili ʻana i kahi mea hoʻopaʻa huelo, hiki ke hoʻomaikaʻi maikaʻi ʻia ka neʻe ʻana i mua, no ka mea, hāʻawi ka mea hoʻokiʻekiʻe i ka neʻe hoʻololi liʻiliʻi a ikaika loa ka rotor huelo. Hiki ke hana ʻia me kā lākou deprona a hoʻopili ʻia me ka lipine adhesive.

Pono e uku ʻia ka neʻe ʻana i mua e ka piʻi iki.

Eia kekahi, hiki ke kau ʻia kahi kāmela maʻalahi, e like me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kī kī, ma ka mokulele.

Eia kekahi laʻana o ka hana hoʻolaha a Konstantin Eduardovich - "ʻO ka papahana maʻalahi o ka aeronate metala maʻemaʻe i hana ʻia me ka hao corrugated" (1914).

Hoʻopau ka leo me nā mea mai ka hana "Project of a metal airship for 40 people" me nā hoʻoponopono a ka mea kākau ma hope o ka palapala 1930.

ʻO ke aloha ponoʻī, a i ʻole ke aloha ʻoiaʻiʻo

A i ʻole e hiki mai ana ka manawa maoli o nā mokulele?

ʻO ke ʻano o kēia puke he moʻolelo ʻepekema. "ʻO ke aloha iā ʻoe iho, a i ʻole ke aloha pilikino maoli" i paʻi ʻia ʻo Tsiolkovsky me kāna kālā ponoʻī ma 1928. I loko o ia mea, e noʻonoʻo ana i nā pilikia pilikanaka a me ka noʻonoʻo, wehewehe ʻo ia i ke ʻano o ko mākou ao. Ma kahi kokoke i hoʻokahi haneli ma hope, ʻaʻole i emi iki ka hoʻolauna ʻana i kēia hana ma mua o nā puke kaulana a Stephen Hawking. Wahi a Tsiolkovsky, ua ʻokoʻa ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana o ke ao holoʻokoʻa ma mua o ka mea i manaʻo ʻia i kēia mau lā. ʻAʻole ʻae ka mea kākau i nā kuhiakau o ke kumu o ke ao holoʻokoʻa mai ke ao lepo-ea a me ka make wela o ke ao holoʻokoʻa. I kona manaʻo, ua mau ke ao holoʻokoʻa i ke ʻano like me ia i kēia manawa. A e mau ana ma ke ano like. Ke manaʻoʻiʻo nei ʻo ia e hele a mālamalama mau nā lā o ko mākou ao, a ʻo nā Big Bangs e alakaʻi ana i ka puka ʻana o ke ao holoʻokoʻa ʻaʻole honua, akā kūloko.

ʻOi aku ma mua o hoʻokahi pule ma mua o ka lā Cosmonautics, a me ka hapalua makahiki ma mua o ka Total Dictation ma ke kumuhana "Space and Tsiolkovsky". Ke hoʻomau nei mākou e kamaʻilio iā ʻoe i nā hana a ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu i ka makahiki ākea, a ua hōʻiliʻili i kahi koho o kāna mau hana ma ka aeronautics. Loaʻa iā ia nā papahana no nā mokulele, kahi mokulele, nā noʻonoʻo i ke ʻano o ke ao holoʻokoʻa. No ka poʻe makemake e lele i luna o kā lākou mokulele ponoʻī a lilo i mea hiki ʻole ke loaʻa i nā maʻi virus a me nā mākaʻi, ʻo nā puke i hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o ka loiloi he kōkua paʻa i kēia kūlana.

Hoʻomaka ka puke mua o nā hana i wae ʻia e Tsiolkovsky me The Theory of the Metal Balloon, i paʻi mua ʻia ma ka puke pai Aeronaut (1900-1908) ma lalo o ke poʻo inoa Balloon and Airplane.

Ua ʻike maikaʻi ʻo Tsiolkovsky ʻo kāna wahi a me nā papahana rocket ka ʻoihana o ka wā e hiki mai ana. Ma ka like, ke hoʻomohala nei ʻo ia i nā mokulele ʻoi aku ka ʻoiaʻiʻo: nā mokulele a me nā mokulele. ʻO nā hana a Tsiolkovsky i hōʻailona i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka ʻoihana mokulele mokulele. ʻO ka hana mua i paʻi ʻia ma luna o nā moku mokulele ʻo Controlled Metal Balloon (1892), kahi ʻepekema a me ka ʻenehana hōʻoia no ka hoʻolālā ʻana i kahi mokulele me ka pūpū metala. Aia i loko o ka ʻatikala "Airplane, or Bird-like (Aircraft) Flying Machine" (1894) kahi wehewehe a me nā kiʻi o kahi monoplane, kahi i manaʻo ʻia i ka hoʻolālā ʻana o nā mokulele e hiki mai ana.

Maʻaneʻi, wehewehe ka ʻepekema i nā ala e hoʻololi ai i ka hoʻolālā i mea e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka mokulele a hoʻohana iā ia no nā mokulele interstellar. No 35 mau makahiki o ka hana ma ke aʻo ʻana i ka aerodynamics, ua hoʻomohala ʻo Tsiolkovsky i kahi kumumanaʻo kikoʻī o ka mokulele, e kākoʻo ana me nā hopena kikoʻī. Eia kekahi laʻana, ua haʻi ʻo ia i "nā lana kūikawā" kahi e kau ai ka mokulele ma ka ʻāina - ka prototype o ka pae pae ʻana o nā mokulele hou.

He mea nui ia, e like me ka nui o kāna mau hana, hoʻohana ʻo Tsiolkovsky i nā leka Lūkini ma aneʻi e koho i ka nui ma nā ʻano, ʻaʻole nā ​​​​latina kuʻuna. Ua nānā mākou ua mālama ʻia ka puke o ke ola o ka puke ma ka Hale Waihona Puke.
https://i0.wp.com/rusneb.ru/catalog/003758_000078_257/

https://i0.wp.com/i0.wp.com/bibliomo.ru/catalog/417861/

https://i0.wp.com/i0.wp.com/bibliomo.ru/catalog/417690/

ʻO ka papahana o kahi mokulele metala no 40 mau kānaka

ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia kāna hana mai ka poʻe o kēia manawa, nā ʻelele o ka ʻepekema aupuni. ʻOiai naʻe, ua hoʻomohala ʻo Tsiolkovsky a hiki i nā lā hope loa i nā manaʻo o ke kūkulu ʻana i ka mokulele a me nā aeronautics. Mai ka makahiki 1910, ua kākau ʻo ia ma kahi o kanahā mau puke liʻiliʻi a me nā ʻatikala e pili ana i ke kumuhana. Ma kāna telegrama e make ana i ke Kōmike Nui o ka All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, ua kākau ʻo ia: "Ua maopopo iaʻu, ʻike wau ʻo nā mokulele Soviet ka mea maikaʻi loa ma ka honua."

Mea kākau: K.E. ʻO Tsiolkovsky

He papahana kēia o ka moku mokulele metala. E like me ka mea i hoʻolālā ʻia, he 20 mika ke kiʻekiʻe a me 120 mika ka lōʻihi. ʻO ka nui o ka nui o ka mokulele (a hiki i 50-100 mau mika ke kiʻekiʻe), ʻoi aku ka holomua o ka papahana - ua lilo kēia manaʻo i wānana no ka ʻoihana mokulele holoʻokoʻa. I ka makahiki 1931, hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope o ka paʻi ʻia ʻana o ka puke, ua hāʻule ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e kūkulu i kahi mokulele metala mai kēia papahana ma muli o ka lawa ʻole o nā lako o ka mea kanu a me ka paʻakikī. Eia nō naʻe, i loko o ka puke e ʻike ʻoe i kahi helu kikoʻī kikoʻī o ka mokulele a me nā pane i nā hana like ʻole a ka ʻepekema. Aia ka puke no ke ola o ka puke ma ka waihona o ka Hale Waihona Puke.

Nā hana i koho ʻia. Buke 1: All-Metal Airship
https://i0.wp.com/rusneb.ru/catalog/003758_000078_252/

mokulele hou

ʻO ka hana "New Airplane" e wehewehe ana i ka hoʻolālā ʻana o kahi mokulele i hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia, ka hoʻomohala ʻana o K.E. Ua aʻo ʻo Tsiolkovsky i nā makahiki 80 o ke kenekulia XIX. Akā ʻoi aku ka hoihoi o kāna mau noʻonoʻo ʻana i ka wā e hiki mai ana o ke kūkulu ʻana i nā mokulele.

Ua mākaukau ʻo Ollie e lele. E hoʻohuli i ka hoʻololi no ka mana i ka Arduino Pro Mini mai ka pākaukau. E pāpaʻi ʻo Ollie i kona mau ʻēheu inā lohe ʻo ia i nā leo a i ʻole ka leo nui wale. I kēia manawa e lawe mai ʻo Ollie i ka hauʻoli a me ka hauʻoli i ka poʻe a puni iā ​​​​ia ma kona mau ʻēheu.

ʻO Ollie kahi mokuahi robotic autonomous e noho ana i ke kaiapuni kanaka. ʻO Ollie nā mea nānā, nā mea noiʻi o ka honua a puni. Ke lohe nā ʻOllie i nā leo, ʻoliʻoli lākou i ko lākou mau ʻēheu e hōʻike i ko lākou aloha aloha. Makemake ʻo Ollie e ʻike e pili ana i nā kānaka a makemake nui i ko lākou nānā.

© A. Green "Scarlet Sails"

Hoʻoiho i ka papahana maʻamau e nānā i ka hana ʻana o ka uwea a ke neʻe nei nā ʻēheu i ka wikiwiki like.

E ʻoki i nā ʻano like ʻole mai loko mai o ka mylar a i ʻole ka foil e kāʻei a puni ka ʻili iwi. E hoʻohana i kahi pū kāpili e hoʻopili ai. Mai "hoʻopaʻa paʻa" i ka iwi ʻēheu i hiki ke ʻano hemispherical ka ʻēheu i ka wā lele.

Loaʻa ʻo Ollie i nā DIYers, nā mea pena, nā mea hoʻolālā a me nā haumāna ma lalo o kahi Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Hoʻopili epoxy

Nā lako nui:

    • Uea d=0.255mm / 2-3 uea kala no ka wili
    • unahi liilii

He lolo Arduino ko Ollie, he mau ʻēheu e lele ai a he microphone e hoʻolohe ai. Ma kēia kumu aʻo, e aʻo wau iā ʻoe pehea e kūkulu ai i kāu Ollie. E ʻoluʻolu e hoʻouna i kāu mau nīnau, manaʻo, tweets, etc. i https://i0.wp.com/i0.wp.com/www.meandollie.com/. Mahalo!

KaʻAnuʻu 1. ʻOhi mākou i nā ʻāpana

Hoʻohui nā mea a pau i ke kaumaha, no laila e hoʻolohe i nā mea āu e hoʻohana ai. Inā ʻaʻole lawa ka paona, hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana, no ka laʻana, pālolo.

A laila hoʻopiha i ka baluna me ka helium.

    • 1 polimer lithium-ion pākaukau 850-900mAh

    • 1 Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
    • 1 wili o ka uwea pahu pale

E hoʻopili i nā ʻēheu i ka servo. A laila e hoʻohui i nā uea i ka drive.

KaʻAnuʻu 4. Hana me nā ʻenekini

    • 1 mea pale ma 3.9KΩ

E uhi i nā kīʻaha me ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi pū puhi wela.

E kulou i ka uwea i loaʻa iā ʻoe nā iwi ʻēheu like. Mai hoʻonui iā lākou e hōʻemi i ke kaumaha, e lele ana ʻo Ollie ma hope o nā mea a pau. E hoʻohana i ka epoxy e hoʻopaʻa i nā wēlau.

    • lipine hoʻokaʻawale

I kēia manawa, pono e māmā ka papa i hiki i ka pōleʻa ke hāpai, a i ʻole e mālama pono i ka pōleʻa i ke kaulike. Inā maʻalahi ka papa, e hoʻohui i ke kaumaha me ka pālolo.

KaʻAnuʻu 8. Lele ʻo Ollie!

I kēia manawa e hoʻopaʻa i nā kīʻaha servo i ka poepoe me ka lipine duct. E kau wale na uwea.

    • Hoʻopili i ka pū wela

E hoʻouna i kāu mau hoʻokolohua ponoʻī, nā tweets, nā manaʻo, nā noi hiʻona a me nā manaʻo i www.meandollie.com. Makemake ʻo Ollie i nā hoaaloha hou.

KaʻAnuʻu 9 Kōkua kōkua

A laila e uhi i ka lipine uila me ka mylar film.

'anuʻu 6 Hoʻohui i ka Microphone

Inā ʻaʻole ʻoe he 850-900mAh polymer lithium-ion pākaukau, a laila ʻaʻole pono kahi mea hou aku ma mua o ~ 18.5g.

 

  • 1 hoololi
  • Papa palaoa

 

E makaʻala i ka wā e kūʻai aku ai i ka Arduino Pro Mini, hiki ke puhi maʻalahi i ke ahi.

E hoʻāʻo i ke kaapuni ma ka papa palaoa a i ʻole Arduino Uno ma mua o ka hoʻohui ʻana, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ke kūʻai ʻana, i ka Arduino Pro Mini.

 

  • 1 LED
  • 2 x 3.6g micro servos (Ua hoʻohana ʻia ka Blue Arrow ma kēia papahana)

 

E nānā i nā servos e hōʻoia i ka pololei o nā ʻēheu a neʻe pū i kahi aniani.

Haʻalele mālie ka helium i ka baluna mylar e hiki ai iā Ollie ke lele no 1.5-2 mau lā me ka hoʻopiha ʻole ʻana.

Hoʻohui i nā uea mana servo nā pine kikohoʻe 2 a me 4 i ka mana 5V a hoʻopaʻa ʻia ma ka papa palaoa a i ʻole i ka Arduino Uno (no ka hoʻāʻo ʻana).

 

  • Plasticine a pālolo paha

 

 

  • Ka hao hao a me ka hao

 

E hoʻohui i nā mea a pau e like me ka papahana. E hoʻopili i ka hoʻololi a me ka pākaukau i ka papa. Hoʻopili i nā uwea a hoʻokaʻawale me ke kāpili wela.

 

  • Mea ʻoki

 

E nānā i ka hoʻokaʻawale.

E hoʻopaʻa i ka papa i lalo o ka pōleʻa me kahi liʻiliʻi o ka foil a i ʻole ka duct tape.

 

  • 1 pepa mylar a i ʻole ʻēheu foil

 

E hoʻopili i nā servo mounts i nā wēlau o nā ʻēheu a laila e sila me ka epoxy. Inā makemake ʻia ka insulation hou, e hoʻohana i ka lipine adhesive.

Holo i kēia (https://i0.wp.com/i0.wp.com/pastebin.com/xVXSEQYs) polokalamu Arduino e hōʻoia i ka hana pono o ka pilina. Pono ka LED e hoʻomālamalama i ka wā e hele ai ka hōʻailona leo i kekahi paepae. Pono ka waiwai paepae e like me ke kani maʻamau a leo nui paha. Inā ʻaʻole ʻā ka LED, e nānā i ka pili pono ʻana o nā mea āpau a "pāʻani a puni" me nā mea mau i ka papahana.

KaʻAnuʻu 7. Hui

Hoʻohui i ka microphone i ka Arduino Uno e like me ka mea i hōʻike ʻia ma ke kiʻi me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ʻelua mau mea pale: 3.9KΩ a me 4.7KΩ. Pono e hoʻopili ʻia ka uea mana i ka pine analog 2 ma ka Arduino. Hoʻohana ʻia nā mea pale e hoʻonui i ka hōʻailona microphone, no laila e hoʻopili pono iā lākou.

 

  • ʻO ke anawaena uea 0.644mm a i ʻole 0.511mm

 

E kaha i hoʻokahi mika Mylar pōpō ma nā wahi e hoʻopili ʻia ai nā ʻēheu. Pono nā māka ma nā ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe o ka baluna e hōʻoia i ke kaulike o ka mokulele i ka lele ʻana.

 

  • Meter mylar (foil) kinipōpō

 

“Ua hoʻomaopopo au i hoʻokahi ʻoiaʻiʻo maʻalahi. E pili ana i ka hana mana me kou mau lima ponoʻī."
Hoʻopili pono i nā pilina Arduino Pro Mini a e like me ke kiʻi wili.

  • 1 pahu helium a i ʻole ke komo ʻana iā ia

Nā mea hou aku:

'anuʻu 3 E hana i nā ʻēheu

  • Arduino Uno a i ʻole kekahi (no ka hoʻāʻo ʻana)
  • 1 FTDI uwea a i ʻole ka papa mana no Arduino Pro Mini

KaʻAnuʻu 2. Uku

E hoʻokomo i nā servos ma o nā kīʻaha liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi (e pono kēia no ka hoʻopili ʻana i nā ʻēheu i ka pōpō a me ka uhi ʻana i nā kaʻa). E hōʻoia i ʻaʻohe mea e keakea ana i ka neʻe ʻana o nā ʻēheu.

'anuʻu 5 Hoʻopili i nā ʻēheu i ka mokulele

  • 1 microphone uila

Hoʻoiho i ka polokalamu (https://i0.wp.com/i0.wp.com/pastebin.com/crtvLn1w) iā Arduino Pro Mini ma o ke kaula FTDI a i ʻole ka papa hoʻololi.

E hoʻololi i ke code, inā makemake ʻia e ka lumi e lele ai ʻo Ollie.

 

  • nā kīʻaha liʻiliʻi

 

E hoʻohui i ka LED i ka pine kikohoʻe 13 ma ka Arduino.

 

  • 1 pale pale ma 4.7KΩ

 

Inā ʻaʻole e neʻe nā ʻēheu, e nānā i ka hoʻomau o ke kaapuni, e hoʻokaʻawale i nā pilina a hoʻomaka hou i nā drive. Inā hana pololei ke kaapuni, e hoʻomākaukau iā ia no ka hoʻopili ʻana i ka Arduino Mini Pro.

Pono ʻoe e hoʻomaka me ka hoʻolālā. Hoʻolālā o ka pūpū i loko. A i ʻole, ʻo waho mua, e ʻōlelo mākou ua hoʻolālā mākou iā ia a ua like ia me kēia:

Laiki.  1 - ʻO ka pahu pahu mokulele mokulele
Laiki. 1 - ʻO ka pahu mokulele mokulele

Eia kona nui ma kahi o 5 mika ka lōʻihi a me ka mika me kekahi mea i ka laula (a i ʻole ka mānoanoa). Pono e liʻiliʻi ka pūpū (ma hope o nā mea a pau, he drone ka drone), lawa ka mea nui e hāpai i kahi ukana liʻiliʻi, e hāpai kēia i 4 kg.

A, ma ke ala, i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo hiki ke like me kēia:

Laiki.  2 - ʻO Shell i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo (ʻaʻole ka mea ma ka Figure 1, ʻokoʻa, akā ʻaʻole ia he mea nui, no ka laʻana wale nō)
Laiki. 2 - ʻO Shell i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo (ʻaʻole ka mea ma ka Figure 1, ʻokoʻa, akā ʻaʻole ia he mea nui, no ka laʻana wale nō)

ʻAe, a eia wau e hoʻāʻo nei =) :

Laiki.  3 - Kekahi o na hoao
Laiki. 3 - Kekahi o na hoao

Akā i kēia manawa ʻaʻole ia e pili ana, pono ʻoe e hoʻolālā i ka pūpū o loko. Kapa au iā ia - ka ʻōhū ... ʻO ka ʻōhū o loko o ka moku ea. Pono ia i hiki i ka drone ke lele i kahi kiʻekiʻe a pae i hope. Pono nō hoʻi e pale i nā kūlana o ka wā. He mea nui nō hoʻi ia i mea e mālama ai i ke kaomi nui o ka mokulele (a laila paʻa a paʻa i kona ʻano). He mea paʻakikī ke wehewehe i ke kumu e pono ai ka puʻupuʻu, pono ʻoe e ʻike me kou mau maka ponoʻī ... No ka ʻike ʻana i ka hilinaʻi o nā ʻāpana lewa i ke kiʻekiʻe (ka mea i ʻike ʻole, ʻoiaʻiʻo, e hōʻike wau i kēia manawa, no ka mea. kekona):

Laiki.  4 - Nā palena lewa maʻamau
Laiki. 4 - Nā palena lewa maʻamau

Hāʻule lākou a pau, emi me ke kiʻekiʻe. A ʻo ia hoʻi, inā mākou e pāpaʻi i ka pūpū me ka hydrogen ma ka lepo, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o ke kaomi o loko ma mua o ke kaomi o ka lewa. Akā, i ka wā e piʻi ai mākou i kahi kiʻekiʻe, e ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o ka waho, ʻaʻole liʻiliʻi, akā nui loa. E ulu ana ka ʻokoʻa o ke kaomi, a e pohā ka pūpū i hoʻokahi manawa. Nā kānāwai o ka physics. ʻO nā baluna a pau a nā kānaka e hoʻolele ai i nā lā hoʻomaha, piʻi aʻe i kahi kiʻekiʻe a pohā. ʻAʻole lākou e lele i ka lewa, a ʻaʻole hoʻi e hele a puni ka honua, me ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i ko lākou kiʻekiʻe hope loa i nā au makani o ka lewa. ʻO ia ke kumu e pono ai mākou i ka ʻōpū o loko. ʻO kēia ka mea e hoʻokaʻawale i kā mākou mea hana mai nā ʻano baluna stratospheric a me nā baluna wā, e hoʻonui i ke kiʻekiʻe e hoʻololi i ko lākou ʻano. Pono kā mākou drone e like me ka drone ma ʻaneʻi. ʻO koʻu kūlana kēia. =)

Ma keʻano laulā, hoʻohana ka ʻōhū i ka pāpaʻi ballast. Ma ka honua, ʻaʻole e paʻa ka mokulele e nā ʻeke one a i ʻole nā ​​​​pilikika, akā ma ka ea. ʻAe, he ea maʻamau kēlā. He nui ia a puni, hiki ke hoʻokuʻu ʻia a hoʻokuʻu ʻia me ka pauma a hiki ke hana koke ʻia.

A ʻo ka mea mua, e helu mākou i ka nui o ka bubble a me nā ʻāpana hoihoi ʻē aʻe. I kēia manawa e hoʻopau wau a hōʻike i ka ratio volume i helu ʻia, a laila e hoʻomau mākou i ka helu ʻana.

Laiki.  5 - ʻO ka ʻōhū i loko o ka moku ea...
Laiki. 5 - ʻO ka ʻōhū i loko o ka mokulele ...

No ka hoʻolālā ʻana i kahi ʻōhū, kākau mākou i kahi kumu hoʻohālike makemakika o ka pilikia. No ka hana ʻana i kēia, pono ʻoe e hoʻomanaʻo i ka hoʻohālikelike o ka mokuʻāina no kahi kinoea kūpono:

pV=\frac m MRT

ʻAuhea
pke kaomi,
Vʻo ia ka leo,
mʻo ia ka nuipaʻa,
Mʻo ia ka nuipaʻa mola,
R=8.314 \: {J}/(molK)ʻo ia ke kinoea kinoea mau, a ʻo T ka wela.

No ka hana hou aku, pono mākou i nā molar molar o ka ea a me ka hydrogen (ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi ma mua o ka helium) (ma ka ʻōnaehana SI):

M_{\mathit{air}}=28.97 \cdot 10^{-3}\mathit{kg}/\mathit{mol}
M_{\mathit{ka wai}}=2\cdot10^{-3}\mathit{kg}/\mathit{mol}

Hoʻokumu ka pūpū me ka ʻōhū i ka ʻōnaehana (ma kahi manawa kūpono ʻole) i hōʻike ʻia ma ke Kiʻi 6.

Ua like ka leo o ka mokulele me ka leo o ka pūpū - ua mau ka waiwai, a ma keia hihia ua like ia me:

V_T=3.33\:m^3

ma ʻaneʻi ka huaʻōlelo T he "kino", ʻo ia hoʻi, ka leo o ke kino holoʻokoʻa (mokulele).

Akā ʻo ka nui o ka hydrogen, ka nui o ka ea a me ka nui o ka ea he mau waiwai hoʻololi, no ka mea i ka wā e hana ʻia ai ka ea i loko a i ʻole ʻia i waho o ka ʻōpū, a laila e hoʻololi i kēia mau ʻāpana.

ʻIke loa, ua like nā kaomi a me nā mahana i loko o ka pūpū a me ka ʻōpū. Akaka no hoi, ua like ka wela me ka lewa, a ua like ke kaomi me ka lewa, aka, me kekahi oi (he waiwai hoololi no hoi, no ka mea, aole pono e like ke kaomi o na pūpū me ka lewa loa). No kēlā me kēia pahu, hiki iā ʻoe ke kākau i ka hoohalike:

k\hema(h\akau) \cdot P_{\mathit{atm}}\hema(h\akau) \cdot \hema(V_T-V_{\mathit{buzz}}\hema(h\akau)\akau) =\frac{m_{\mathit{vod))}{M_{\mathit{vod))}R \cdot T\hema(h\akau)
k\hema(h\akau) \cdot P_{\mathit{atm}}\hema(h\akau) \cdot V_{\mathit{buzz}}\hema (h\'akau)=\frac{m_{\mathit {air}}\hema(h\akau)}{M_{\mathit{air}}}R \cdot T\hema(h\akau)

ma ʻaneʻi ua kākau ʻia nā mea hoʻololi e like me ke kiʻekiʻe hilinaʻi. I loko o kēia mau ʻano, ʻaʻole ʻo ke kaomi i loko o nā pūpū ponoʻī e ʻike ʻia, akā ʻo ka overpressure coefficient k, ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi (noʻu). ʻIke ʻia ke kaomi lewa a me ka mahana, ua hōʻike mua ʻia lākou ma luna e nā hilinaʻi kiʻi. Akā ʻaʻole ʻike ʻia ke koena o nā mea hoʻololi.

E puunaue kakou i kekahi hoohalike me kekahi:

\frac{V_T-V_{\mathit{buzz))\hema(h\akau)}{V_{\mathit{buzz))\hema(h\akau)}=\frac{m_{\mathit{wc)) }{M_{\mathit{air}}} \cdot \frac{M_{\mathit{air}}}{m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(h\akau)}

E hoʻololi iki kākou me nā hana helu:

V_T=\frac{m_{\mathit{water}}}{M_{\mathit{water}}} \cdot \frac{M_{\mathit{air}}}{m_{\mathit{air}}\left( h\'ākau)} \cdot V_{\mathit{buzz))\hema(h\'ākau)+V_{\mathit{buzz))\hema(h\'ākau)

Huina loaʻa iā mākou:

V_{\mathit{belt}}\hema(h\akau)=\frac{V_T}{1+\frac{m_{\mathit{vod}}}{M_{\mathit{vod}}} \cdot \frac {M_{\mathit{air}}}{m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(h\'ākau))))

Hiki iā mākou ke kākau i kahi hoohalike ʻē aʻe - ua like ka nui o ka mana Archimedes me ka ikaika o ka umekaumaha (hoʻemi ʻia e ka g):

ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(h\akau) \cdot V_T=m_{\mathit{const}}+m_{\mathit{wai}}+m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(h\ akau)

Maʻaneʻi, pili ka nui o ka ea lewa i ke kiʻekiʻe, ʻoiai ka nui o ka hydrogen a me ka hale (ma lalo o ka hale ke manaʻo nei mākou i ka nui o ka hale a me ka uku uku) mau, akā ʻike ʻole ʻia.

E hōʻike kākou i ka nuipaʻa o ka ea mai kēia hoohalike:

m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(h\akau)=ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(h\akau) \cdot V_T-m_{\mathit{const}}-m_{\mathit{wai }}

Ke hoʻololi nei i kēia hilinaʻi i ke ʻano no ka
V_{\mathit{belt}}\hema(h\akau)mea e loaʻa iā mākou kahi ʻano, akā ʻaʻole ʻike ʻia ʻelua mau ʻāpana - ka nui o ka hydrogen a me ke ʻano.

Hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa iā lākou no kēia mau kumu. Pono ʻoe e hoʻoholo i ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe e lele ai ka drone. No laila, ua hoʻoholo mua wau, ʻo ia ka 2000 m. I kēia manawa ke kākau nei mākou i ka hoʻohālikelike ma luna ma nā wahi palena:

ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(0\akau) \cdot V_T=m_{\mathit{const}}+m_{\mathit{wai}}+m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(0\ akau)
ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(2000\akau) \cdot V_T=m_{\mathit{const}}+m_{\mathit{water}}+m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(2000\ akau)

Akā, no ka mea, ʻo ka nui o ka ea i loko o ka ʻōpū ma ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe e like me ka ʻole (pono mākou e like me ka mea mālama ballast, a ma ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe, e like me ka loiloi o nā mea, pono e hoʻokuʻu ʻia nā ballast āpau), loaʻa iā mākou:

ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(0\akau) \cdot V_T=m_{\mathit{const}}+m_{\mathit{wai}}+m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(0\ akau)
ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(2000\akau) \cdot V_T=m_{\mathit{const}}+m_{\mathit{water}}

E unuhi ana i ka hoohalike elua mai ka hoohalike mua, e hooholo kakou i ka nuipa o ka ea ma ke ki'eki'e nul.

m_{\mathit{air}}\left(0\right)=\left(ρ_{\mathit{air}}\left(0\right)-ρ_{\mathit{air}}\left(2000\'akau) \akau) \cdot V_T

E kākau kākou i ka hoohalike o ka moku'āina no ka 'ōhū ma ke ki'eki'e 'ole.

V_{\mathit{belt}}\hema (0\'ākau)=m_{\mathit{air}}\hema (0\'ākau)\frac{R \cdot T\hema (0\'ākau)}{M_{\ mathit{air}} \cdot k\hema(0\akau) \cdot P_{\mathit{atm}}\hema(0\akau)}

Eia, ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻākau, ʻike ʻia nā mea a pau, koe wale ka coefficient k ma ke kiʻekiʻe ʻole. Mai ka ʻike hiki iaʻu ke hōʻike i kahi mea huna, no nā pūpū i hana ʻia i nā kiʻiʻoniʻoni metallized ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana iā ia e like me 1.03 kokoke i ka lepo. I ka 1.05, e pohā ka pūpū... A i ka 1.03, ua paʻa maikaʻi kona ʻano, akā ʻo ka mea maikaʻi ʻo ia ke kikoo ʻia e like me ka pahu. ʻO ke kaumaha nui i kēia hihia, no ka mea he maʻalahi ke hoʻomaopopo, ma kahi o 3 kPa.

I ka huina, ua loaʻa iā mākou ka leo o ka bubble (no ka mea ma ke kiʻekiʻe ʻaʻole e ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe, hoʻouka ʻia me ka ballast a hiki i ka palena).

A ʻo ka manawa kēia e kākau ai i ka hoohalike o comp. id. kinoea no ka pūpū mokulele ma ke kiʻekiʻe ʻole a pēlā e ʻike ai i ka nuipa o ka hydrogen:

m_{\mathit{atm))=\frac{k\hema(0\'akau) \cdot P_{\mathit{atm)\hema(0\'akau) \cdot M_{\mathit{atm))}{R \cdot T\hema(0\'ākau)} \cdot \hema(V_T-V_{\mathit{'ōpū))\hema(0\'ākau)\'ākau)

A ua maʻalahi ka nui o ka hale e hoʻoholo:

m_{\mathit{const}}=ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(2000\akau) \cdot V_T-m_{\mathit{wai}}

Me he mea lā ua huikau nā mea a pau, akā ʻo ka ʻoiaʻiʻo aia kahi ʻōnaehana maʻamau o nā hoʻohālikelike laina o ka papa 4, hiki iā ʻoe ke hana i kēia ala: kākau mua iā ia a hoʻoponopono iā ia e like me ka slough.

I ka huina, ua like nā waiwai no kā mākou hihia:

m_{\mathit{ka wai}}=0.23985 \: \mathit{kg},
m_{\mathit{const}}=3.112 \: \mathit{kg},
m_{\mathit{air}}\hema(0\akau)=0.7276 \: \mathit{kg},
V_{\mathit{buzz))\hema(0\'ākau)=0.57664 \: m^3.

I kēia manawa ua ʻike ʻia nā mea a pau, hiki iā ʻoe ke kūkulu i nā kiʻi hilinaʻi me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā formula:

V_{\mathit{belt}}\hema(h\akau)=\frac{V_T}{1+\frac{m_{\mathit{vod}}}{M_{\mathit{vod}}} \cdot \frac {M_{\mathit{air}}}{ρ_{\mathit{air}}\hema(h\akau) \cdot V_T-m_{\mathit{const}}-m_{\mathit{water}}}}
k\hema(h\akau)=\frac{m_{\mathit{wm))}{M_{\mathit{wm))}R \cdot \frac{T\hema(h\akau)}{P_{\ mathit{atm}}\hema(h\akau) \cdot \hema(V_T-V_{\mathit{buzz))\hema(h\akau)\akau)}

OK ua pau i keia manawa. Pono nā mea a pau, hana pono nā mea a pau. Hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻōlelo ua mākaukau ka ʻōhū. Hiki iā ʻoe ke helu i kona mau ana ma muli o ka nui.

No laila, hiki i kahi drone airship i hoʻolako ʻia me kahi pahu i loko e hiki ke lawe i kahi kiʻekiʻe o 2 km a, i ka manawa like, ʻaʻole wale ia e ʻeha, akā e mālama pū nō hoʻi i kona ʻano a kokoke mau ke kaomi. Hiki ke mālama ʻia nā loli o ka lewa. ʻO nā mea a pau.

A laila hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻopau i ka drone a hiki i ka hopena a lele i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, e like me ka simulation:

Mahalo no kou noonoo.

Pehea e hana ai i kahi mokulele me kou mau lima ponoʻī. Pehea e hana ai i ka mokulele? He aha ka moku lele? Pono lākou i kēia ao? He aha nā kinoea i hoʻohana ʻia

Ma ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa, hoʻohana ʻia ʻehā hoʻopiha kinoea o ka mokulele.

ʻOkoʻa nā moku ea Semi-rigid mai nā mokulele palupalu ma muli o ke ʻano o kahi pahu metala paʻa i lalo, ʻo ka nui o ia mau mokulele i hiki i 35,000 cubic mika.

Palani semi-rigid airship "Liberte" - 1909

No laila, ʻike mākou i nā kinoea, ʻānō e ʻike kākou i ke ʻano o nā moku lele. Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā mokulele i ʻekolu mau ʻano, ʻo ia ka palupalu, semi-rigid a me ka paʻa.

ʻO ka moku mokulele palupalu he pūpū, i hana mau ʻia me ka lole multilayer rubberized, a me kahi gondola i hoʻopili ʻia i ka pūpū me nā maʻa. No ka hoʻolako ʻana i ka pūpū me ka ʻoʻoleʻa a me ka ikaika, ua mālama ʻia ke kinoea i loko i kekahi kaomi, me ke kōkua ʻana o nā baluna me ke ea i hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o ka pūpū, ma ka hoʻololi ʻana i ke kaomi ea i loko o nā baluna, ua hiki ke hoʻoponopono i ke kaomi i loko o ka pūpū. i ka wā i hoʻololi ai ke kiʻekiʻe o ka lele, i ka wā i hoʻololi ʻia ai ke kaomi o ka lewa o waho. Eia kekahi, no ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka ikaika, ua hoʻohana ʻia nā kaula hoʻopaʻapaʻa i loko, i hoʻopaʻa i nā ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe o ka pūpū. No ke kāpae ʻana i ke kahe o ke kinoea i loko o ka pūpū, ua māhele ʻia e nā ʻāpana i kekahi mau ʻāpana. He 10,000 cubic mika ka nui o na moku ea palupalu.

Palani palupalu airship "Ville de Paris" - 1906
ʻO ke kinoea hoʻokiʻekiʻe loa he hydrogen, hoʻokahi lita o ka hydrogen ma ka ʻili o ka honua ke kaumaha 0.09 grams, he lita o ka ea 1.3 grams, ʻo ia hoʻi he hydrogen ka ikaika hāpai o 1.2 grams, a i ʻole. 1.2 kg no ka mika cubic. No laila, ua hoʻohana nui ʻia kēia kinoea i ka hana ʻana i ka mokulele. Eia nō naʻe, ʻelua mau hemahema ikaika o ka hydrogen, ʻo ka mea mua, ʻo ia ka nui o ka puhi ahi a me ka hiki, ke hui pū ʻia me ka oxygen, e hana i kahi hui pahū e hiki ke pahū mai ka liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi, mai ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana i loko o kou lole. ʻO ka lua o ka hoʻihoʻi ʻana o ka hydrogen ʻo ia kona hiki ke ʻike a hoʻopuehu i nā mea, ʻo ia hoʻi ke kahe mau mai ka pūpū.

Hoʻohana pū ʻia ka Helium no ka hoʻopiha ʻana, ʻo ia ke kinoea maikaʻi loa no nā mokulele, he ʻumi pākēneka wale nō ka emi o ka lawe ʻana ma mua o ka hydrogen, akā ʻaʻole hiki ke puhi a palekana, ʻoiai he hiki ke kiʻekiʻe ke komo i loko o nā paia o ka pūpū. ʻO kāna kumu hoʻihoʻi nui ʻo ia ka rarity a me ke kumukūʻai; no ka manawa mua, ua hoʻohana ʻia ka helium i ka hale mokulele e nā ʻAmelika i nā makahiki 20 o ke kenekulia XX i hala.

ʻO ka moku mokulele ʻAmelika ZR-1 "Shenandoah"

Ma kahi kaʻawale, pono e haʻi i nā mokulele mokulele a pau. ʻO ka mea pōʻino, he kakaikahi wale nō o lākou i hana ʻia a ua kau ka hopena ʻē aʻe ma luna o nā mea nāna i hana. ʻO kekahi o nā papahana mua ʻo ia ka mokulele o ka ʻenekini Kelemania ʻo David Schwartz, auwe, ʻo kona make ʻana i ka wā o ke kūkulu ʻana, alakaʻi ʻia i ka emi ʻana o ka mea hana, a ma kahi o 80 mika, ua kūkulu lākou i kahi mokulele 38-mika hiki ke hāpai i hoʻokahi wale nō. kanaka, ʻaʻole ia he mea kupanaha no ka lele mua loa i alakaʻi ʻia i ka pōʻino ma muli o ka hāʻule ʻana o ka propeller a me ka hewa o ka pailaka, ua luku ʻia ka mokulele, akā ua ola ka mea hoʻokele.

ʻO ka papahana o ka mokulele mokulele Tsiolkovsky āpau, he papahana ia ma mua o kona manawa, ua hoʻolālā ʻia ka airship e lilo i mea hao āpau mai kahi ʻāpana kila corrugated, paʻa kinoea, ua hoʻololi ʻia ka leo ma o ka hoʻololi ʻana i nā tensions kūloko i ka hull, ka mea pōʻino, Tsiolkovsky hiki ke hoʻomaka kūkulu wale i ka hopena o kona ola a me ka hoʻokō 'ia e kūkulu i ho'ēmi wale 1000 cubic mika kükohu, a me ka oiai ka 'ike loea hou no ka hana ana i na mea a me ka structural mau mea, me ka make ana o Tsiolkovsky, ka. ua hoʻopau ʻia nā hoʻāʻo ʻana, a ʻaʻole liuliu ua paʻa loa ka papahana.

ʻO kekahi papahana iʻoi aku ka hoihoi i hoʻomohalaʻia e ka Russian airship engineer Aderson, akāʻo ka makeʻana o ka'enekene kekahi i kāohi i ka hanaʻana.

Akā, ua kūkulu ʻia ka mokulele mokulele āpau ma USA, ʻo ia ka ZMC-2 monocoque airship, i kūkulu ʻia e Ralph Upson, he limahana o ka hui mokulele mokulele Goodyear. Ma ka waena o nā makahiki 1930, ua kūkulu ʻia kahi prototype mai nā papa duralumin a me nā stringers, kahi i hoʻopaʻa ʻia ai kahi ʻili o 142 apo o ka duralumin lole 0.24 mm mānoanoa, ua uhi ʻia nā ʻili āpau me ka sealant. Ua hōʻike ʻia nā hoʻāʻo i ke ʻano kiʻekiʻe o ka mea hana.

ZMC-2 a me Hindenburg LZ-129 kaao ma lalo o hoʻokahi hale…

He aha ka mokulele palupalu? He baluna kēia me kahi keʻena i hoʻopaʻa ʻia me nā kaula. Inā hoʻokuʻu ʻia ke kinoea, e nalowale ke ʻano o ka pūpū.

ʻO ka moku ea semi-rigid (kiʻi ʻia ma ka ʻatikala) pili pū i ke kaomi kūloko e mālama ai i kona ʻano, akā aia nō ke ʻano keel metala e holo longitudinally ma ke kumu o ka baluna a kākoʻo i ka hale.

ʻO nā moku ea ʻoʻoleʻa he ʻāpana alumini māmā māmā i uhi ʻia i ka lole. ʻAʻole lākou i sila. Aia i loko o kēia hale kekahi mau baluna, hiki ke hoʻopiha ʻia kēlā me kēia me ke kinoea. Mālama nā mokulele o kēia ʻano i ko lākou ʻano, me ka nānā ʻole i ke ʻano o ka hoʻopiha ʻana o nā cylinders.

I ka ʻimi ʻana i ka mana

ʻO kekahi hanauna hou o nā ʻenekini hoʻolālā, ʻo kekahi o lākou i kākoʻo ʻia e ke aupuni nui a me ka hoʻopukapuka pilikino, ke manaʻoʻiʻo nei, ma muli o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā ʻenehana hou a me nā mea hou, e hiki i ke kaiāulu ke pōmaikaʻi mai ke kūkulu ʻana i nā mokulele. I Malaki i ka makahiki i hala, ua mālama ka Hale o nā Lunamaka'āinana o ʻAmelika i kahi hālāwai i hoʻolaʻa ʻia no kēia ʻano kaʻa mokulele, ʻo ia ka mea e hoʻolalelale i ke kaʻina hana o kā lākou hoʻomohala ʻana.

ʻO Boeing a me Northrop Grumman ke hoʻomohala nei i nā mokulele mokulele i nā makahiki i hala iho nei. Ua kūkulu ʻo Russia, Brazil a me Kina i kā lākou mau prototypes ponoʻī. Ua hana ʻo Kanada i nā hoʻolālā no nā mokulele he nui, e like me ka Solarship, e like me ka mea hoʻoheheʻe aihue me nā paneli lā i kau ʻia ma luna o kona mau ʻēheu i piha i ka helium. Aia nā kānaka a pau i ka heihei e lilo i ka helu ʻekahi a e hoʻokolo i ka mākeke kaʻa kaʻa kālā he nui-biliona. I kēia manawa, ʻekolu mau papahana e huki nei i ka manaʻo nui:

    • English Airlander 10, na Hybrid Air Vehicles - i kēia manawa ka mokulele nui loa ma ka honua;
    • LMH-1, Lockheed Martin;
    • Aeroscraft, Worldwide Eros Corp, i hana ʻia e Igor Pasternak, he malihini mai Ukraine.

 

E kūʻai i ka baluna latex piha i ka helium. ʻO ka mea maʻamau a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea ʻē aʻe me ka nui o ka ukana ma kahi o 10 g. No ka hoʻokō ʻana i ke kaumaha i makemake ʻia, hoʻohui ʻia ka ballast, kahi i wehe ʻia e like me ka helium leaks.

Hoʻopili ʻia nā ʻāpana i ke koʻokoʻo me ka lipine adhesive. Hoʻohana ʻia ke kaʻa mua no ka neʻe ʻana i mua, a kau ʻia ka hope i perpendicularly. Aia ke kolu o ka enekini ma ke kikowaena o ka umekaumaha a ua kuhikuhi ia i lalo. Hoʻopili ʻia ka propeller iā ia ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe i hiki iā ia ke hoʻokuke i ka mokulele i luna. Pono e hoʻopili ʻia nā kaʻa me ka superglue.

Ma ka hoʻopili ʻana i kahi mea hoʻopaʻa huelo, hiki ke hoʻomaikaʻi maikaʻi ʻia ka neʻe ʻana i mua, no ka mea, hāʻawi liʻiliʻi ka mea hoʻokiʻekiʻe a ikaika loa ka rotor huelo. Hiki ke hana ʻia me kā lākou deprona a hoʻopili ʻia me ka lipine adhesive.

Pono e uku ʻia ka neʻe ʻana i mua e ka piʻi iki.

Eia kekahi, hiki ke kau ʻia kahi kāmela maʻalahi, e like me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kī kī, ma ka mokulele.

 

ʻO ka makahiki mua o ke kenekulia 20 hiki ke kapa ʻia ʻo "ka wanaʻao gula" o ka hale mokulele. I loko o nā makahiki, ua kūkulu ʻia a hoʻāʻo ʻia he mau haneli o nā baluna i hoʻopaʻa ʻia ma nā ʻāina ʻEulopa a me ʻAmelika ʻĀkau. I ka manawa like, he mea hoihoi loa ka manaʻo o ka mokulele i ka honua kahiko a me ka honua hou i ʻokoʻa loa. Inā ma nā ʻāina ʻEulopa i manaʻo ʻia, ʻo ka mea mua, mai kahi hiʻohiʻona utilitarian - ma ke ʻano he mīkini pūʻali koa a me kahi kaʻa, a laila ma ka USA kahi ʻoi aku ka "fvolous" i lanakila. Ma laila, ua ʻike ʻia ka mokulele ma ke ʻano he mea haʻuki hou a he mea hoihoi no ka poʻe ʻimi hauʻoli.

No laila, ma ʻEulopa, ma ke ʻano he kānāwai, ua kūkulu ʻia nā mokulele mokulele nui nui, a ʻo kā lākou kūkulu ʻia ʻana i kālā ʻia e nā hui aupuni a i ʻole nā ​​​​ʻoihana waiwai a kaulana. Ma ʻAmelika, ʻo ka hana ʻana i ka mokulele i ka wā mua ʻo ia ka nui o ka poʻe hauʻoli hoʻokahi i hana ma kā lākou kālā ponoʻī a pinepine me ko lākou mau lima ponoʻī i nā baluna liʻiliʻi noho hoʻokahi me nā kaʻa kaʻa a i ʻole ka mana haʻahaʻa. Mahalo iā lākou, ua ʻike ʻia kahi haʻuki hou ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa a loaʻa koke ka kaulana - ka heihei mokulele, kahi i hōʻuluʻulu ʻia i nā mea nānā ma mua o ka heihei kaʻa a me nā kaʻa.

Ua hoʻohālike ʻia nā moku holo mokulele ʻAmelika a pau ma hope o kā Thomas Baldwin's California Arrow, i lele mua i ka makahiki 1900. He cylindrical oblong hydrogen cylinder ma kahi o 20 mau mika ka lōʻihi me nā ʻaoʻao kikoʻī, i humuhumu ʻia mai ka lole i hoʻopaʻa ʻia. Ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia kekahi gondola palupalu mai ka baluna ma nā maʻa kaula ma ke ʻano o kahi pahu triangular lōʻihi i hana ʻia me nā kaola lāʻau lahilahi, kahi i hoʻopili ʻia ai ka ʻenekini a me ka pahu hau. ʻO kahi propeller ʻelua ʻaoʻao me nā ʻāpana i hana ʻia me nā ʻāpana canvas i hoʻomaloʻo ʻia ma waena o nā kaʻa i hoʻohuli ʻia i mua. ʻO ka motika, i kau ʻia ma kahi kokoke i ke kikowaena o ka gravity, ua hoʻopili ʻia i ka propeller me kahi lāʻau lōʻihi.

ʻO ka hiʻohiʻona nui o ka mokulele Baldwin a me nā hoʻolālā like ʻē aʻe ʻo ka nele loa o kahi hint o kahi cockpit. Noho maoli ka aeronaut ma luna o ke kaola fuselage luna, e kau ana i kona mau wāwae ma lalo a paʻa i kona mau lima ma nā laina. ʻAʻohe ona kāʻei noho a i ʻole ʻinikua ʻē aʻe. Akā, ua hiki iā ia ke neʻe i mua a i waho, e hoʻololi i ke kikowaena o ka mea hana, no ka mea, ua hāpai a hoʻohaʻahaʻa paha ka mokulele i kona ihu a lele i luna a i lalo. Hoʻohana ʻia ka hoʻomalu ʻana i ka papa me ka hoʻokele huelo, hiki i ka mea hoʻokele ke hoʻohuli i nā ʻaoʻao, e huki ana i nā kaula i hohola ʻia ma ka gondola.


He ʻāpana o ka gondola a me ka mana o ka mokulele Curtiss.

ʻO ka baluna hoʻomalu lekiō e hana iā ʻoe iho

No ka loiloi i nā pilikia e kū mai ana i ka wā o ke kūkulu ʻana i nā mokulele o kēia ʻano, hiki iā ʻoe ke kūkulu i kahi mokulele o nā keiki. ʻOi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o nā hiʻohiʻona āu e kūʻai ai a loaʻa ka hui maikaʻi loa o ka paʻa a me ka maneuverability.

No ka hana ʻana i kahi mokulele miniature, pono ʻoe i kēia mau mea:

    • ʻEkolu mau mīkini liʻiliʻi e kaupaona ana he 2.5g a i ʻole.
    • Hiki ke kūʻai ʻia kahi mea lawe micro a hiki i 2 g (no ka laʻana, DelTang Rx33, ma waena o nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe, mai nā hale kūʻai pūnaewele kūikawā e like me Micron Radio Control, Aether Sciences RC a i ʻole Plantraco), i hoʻohana ʻia e kahi cell lithium polymer cell. E hōʻoia i ka pili ʻana o nā mea hoʻohui kaʻa a me ka mea hoʻokipa, i ʻole e koi ʻia ke kūʻai ʻana.
    • Mea hoʻouna kūpono me ʻekolu a ʻoi aʻe paha nā kaha.
    • ʻO 70-140 mAh LiPo pākaukau a me ka mea hoʻoili kūpono. No ka mālamaʻana i ka nui o ke kaumaha ma lalo o 10g, pono ke kaumaha a hiki i ka 2.5g. ʻO ka mana nui o ka pila e hōʻoia i ka manawa lele lōʻihi: ma 125 mAh, hiki iāʻoe ke hoʻokō i ka lōʻihi o 30 mau minuke.
    • ʻO nā uwea e hoʻopili ana i ka pākaukau i ka mea hoʻokipa.
    • ʻEkolu mea hoʻolele liʻiliʻi.
    • Kookoo kalapona (1 mm), 30 knm ka loa.
    • ʻO kahi ʻāpana depron 10 x 10 cm.
    • Cellophane, lipine, superglue a me nā ʻoki.

 

ʻO ka mea pōʻino, ʻaʻole i kūkulu ʻia kahi moku mokulele 100,000 cubic mika nui o kēia ʻano ma muli o ka puka ʻana o ke Kaua Honua II.

Nānā mai kahi moku mokulele Farani 1918

ʻO ka mokulele (mai ka French diriger - "hoʻokele") he mea hoʻokele ponoʻī. E haʻi mākou e pili ana i kona mōʻaukala a pehea e kūkulu ai i kēia mokulele iā mākou iho ma hope o ka ʻatikala.

Nā mea hoʻolālā

ʻEkolu mau ʻano nui o nā mokulele mokulele: palupalu, semi-rigid a ʻoʻoleʻa. ʻEhā mau ʻāpana nui o lākou a pau:

    • ʻO ka pūpū cigar a i ʻole ka baluna i piha i ke kinoea i emi iho ka nui ma mua o ka ea;
    • cabin a gondola paha, i hoʻokuʻu ʻia ma lalo o ka pūpū, kahi e lawe ai i ka poʻe holo moku a me nā mea holo;
    • nā enekini e hoʻokele i nā propellers;
    • nā hoeuli hoʻopaʻa a me ke kūpaʻa e kōkua i ke alakaʻi ʻana i ka mokulele.

ʻO ka moku mokulele he mea ʻoi aku ka māmā ma mua o ka ea, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka ikaika Archimedean no ka hāpai ʻana, a me nā ʻenekini piston like ʻole no ka neʻe ʻana i ka pae. E nānā pono kākou i ka hāpai ʻana. I mea e hemo ai ka mokulele a i ʻole ka baluna maʻalahi, pono e emi iho ka mānoanoa o ke kinoea i loko o ka envelopp ma mua o ka mānoanoa o ka lewa ma waho o ka envelopp, ma ke ʻano like a i ʻole like. ʻO nā papahana e hoʻohana ana i ka vacuum ua mau nā papahana, ʻoiai ʻo ka vacuum ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa loa, a no laila ka ikaika hoʻokiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe, i ka manawa like ʻole ke kaomi ʻana, a no laila koi ʻia kahi pūpū paʻa e hiki ke kū i ke kaomi o waho. Hōʻike ka helu maʻalahi e ʻoi aku ka nui o ka nui o ia pūpū no ka hoʻohana pono ʻana.
He laʻana o ka "gas-free" airship.

ʻO kekahi o nā kaʻa steampunk koʻikoʻi ʻo ia ka mokulele mokulele, ʻaʻole ia he mea kupanaha, hāʻawi ʻia i ka halo aloha e hoʻopuni ana i kēia ʻano kaʻa. E ʻike kākou i ke ʻano o nā mokulele a hōʻike i ka moʻolelo o ka honua.

Ua hoʻomau ka mokulele o A. Giffard
e pili ana i ka mālama ʻana o nā mokulele a me kā lākou hoʻohana ʻana ma hope ...

 

Eia kekahi, hoʻohana ʻia ke kinoea kukui e hoʻopiha ai i nā pūpū, ʻo ia hoʻi, ka hui ʻana o nā pahu ahi i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hoʻomālamalama ʻana i ke kinoea, aia ka hui ʻana o ka hydrogen, methane a me kekahi mau kinoea ʻē aʻe. Ua kaupalena ʻia ka hoʻohana ʻana o ia mea hoʻopihapiha, no ka mea ʻo ka pono wale nō ka haʻahaʻa, akā aia hou nā pilikia me ka combustibility a me ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa.

A ʻo ka mea hope loa, ua hoʻohana ʻia ka ea wela wale nō e hoʻopiha ai i nā mokulele, akā i ka palena palena ʻole, ʻoiai ʻo ka ea wela loa he ʻekolu mau manawa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka hydrogen, ʻo ia hoʻi, hoʻomaha a pono e wela, a no laila paʻakikī. ʻO ka hoʻolālā o ka mokulele e hoʻohui i nā mea wela, ka wahie iā lākou a no laila e hoʻonui ai i ke kaumaha o ka hale, ʻaʻole i loaʻa ka ikaika hāpai nui, no laila, e like me kaʻu i kākau ai, ua hoʻohana liʻiliʻi ia.
ʻO ka papahana hou "Thermostat".

No nā moku mokulele nui a hiki i 200,000 cubic mika, ua hoʻohana ʻia kahi ʻano ʻekolu - ʻoʻoleʻa. ʻO ia moku ea he ʻano paʻa paʻa i uhi ʻia me ka pūpū lole. Hoʻohana wale ʻia kēia pūpū no ka hana ʻana i kahi ʻano maʻalahi a, ma ke ʻano he lula, ʻaʻole paʻa i ka ea; aia ke kinoea aerostatic i loko o nā ʻeke kūikawā i hoʻopili ʻia i nā mea paʻa paʻa. He mau kakini o ia mau eke ma ka mokulele. Ua hoʻopili ʻia nā gondolas, plumage, nā lawelawe like ʻole a me nā wahi ʻē aʻe i nā mea hoʻokalakupua paʻa me nā stringers longitudinal, nā papa transverse a me nā pale uea kila like ʻole.

ʻO ka mea lawe mokulele ZRS-5 "Macon" - 1933


0 replies on “Pehea e hana ai i ka mokulele he aha”

Absolut ist mit Ihnen einverstanden. Darin ist etwas auch mir scheint es die ausgezeichnete Idee. Ich bin mit Ihnen einverstanden.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *